Ang katayuan ng “Aqsa mosk” sa puso ng mga muslim.

Ang “Aqsa Mosk” ay madaing pangalan sa historya nito at galing sa mga pinaka banal na aklat at ito ay:ang Quran at ang Sunnah, ang ibigsabihin ng “Aqsa” sa Arabic ay ang pinaka malayo, at maaaring ipinangalan ito sa banal na mosk dahil ito ang pinaka malayo na banal na mosk nadapat bisitahin ng isang muslim, maari din na ito ang tawag dito para iparating sa mga makaka rinig na itong mosk na ito ay malayo sa mga kadumihan, okaya na wala nang hihigit sa kabanalan sa itong mosk na ito. Itinawag din ito na : mosk ng “Ailia” at ibigsabihin nito ay ang bahay ng Allah at ang “Ailia” ay ang pangalan ng lugar kung nasaan itong banal na mosk ito. “Baytul Maqdis” ay isa din sa mga itinatawag dito, at “Maqdis” ay ang kalayuan sa mga kasalanan at ang kalinisan sa mga pagkakamali, ayon sa mga ipinangalan dito, makikita natin kung gaano kahalaga itong lugar na ito, at gaano kabanal ito para sa atin.
ang “Masjisdul Aqsa” ay na mensyon sa Suratul Israa, sa unang unang tula nito, at itong Surah nato ay ipinangalang “Israa” at ito ay ang arabik na salita para sa pagmunta ng propeta Muhammad (kapayapaan ay sa kanya) mula sa Masjidul Haram hanggang sa Masjidul Aqsa, ang pag pangalan sa itong surah na ito, at pagmensyon nitong Mosk na ito sa unang tula ay ang pinaka malaking karangalan para sa minamahal at nirerespto nating mosk.
Sinabi ng Allah (swt) sa banal na Quran :
(سبحان الذي أسرى بعبده ليلاً من المسجد الحرام إلى المسجد الأقصى الذي باركنا حوله لنريه من آياتنا إنه هو السميع البصير) – سورة الإسراء /آية 1
Ayon dito sa tula na ito; binigyan ng Allah (swt) ang banal na mosk na ito na banal na pangalan at ito ay “Masjidul Aqsa” at باركنا حوله” ay ang pagpapala na nasa paligid nito, at itong pagpala na ito ay hindi lang dahil sa kagandahan at kalapitan nitong simbahan na ito sa atin at ang mga nakapaligid sa kanya pero dahil sa pagpala na naibigay dito nandahil sa mga mensahe na pindala ng Allah (swt) sa mga propeta niyang ibinaba dito sa pinagpalang lugar na ito;ang minamahal nating Quds saka ang mga paligiran o kaya ang Palestina at ang mga paligid nitong mga bansa,at ayon naman sa Hadith na ito:
روى ابن حنبل في حديث الإسراء عَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ـ صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ـ قَالَ: (أُتِيتُ بِالْبُرَاقِ، وَهُوَ دَابَّةٌ أَبْيَضُ فَوْقَ الْحِمَارِ وَدُونَ الْبَغْلِ، يَضَعُ حَافِرَهُ عِنْدَ مُنْتَهَى طَرْفِهِ، فَرَكِبْتُهُ فَسَارَ بِي حَتَّى أتيت بيت الْمَقْدِسِ فَرَبَطْتُ الدَّابَّةَ بِالْحَلْقَةِ الَّتِي يَرْبِطُ فِيهَا الْأَنْبِيَاءُ، ثُمَّ دَخَلْتُ فَصَلَّيْتُ فِيهِ رَكْعَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ خَرَجْتُ …)
Ang isa pang pangalan nito ay “Baytul Maqdis” at ang Arabik na salitang “Quds” ay pinahahayag ang kahulugan ng kalinisan, kabanalan, pagpuri at ang ,mga matataas na kahulugan.
Ang “Aqsa Mosk” ay mataas sa paniningin ng mga muslim, ito ay malalim sa mga puso ng mga taong muslim. Sa pagsimula nong sinilang itong mahalagang simbahan na ito, ay pinagtatanggul ng mga bayaning muslim, at para dito ay madaing kaluluwang na ibayad, at mahigit mas malaki ang binayad na dugo, para dito na tanim ang pangalan ni bayaning “Salah Al-deen Al-ayyubiy” dahil sa kahanga-hangang taktika niya matapos ito maokupahan ng mga crusaders.

Ito din ay ang unang “Qibla” ng mga muslim, at ito ay hinatid saatin ng Hadith na ito:
1. حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏عَلْقَمَةُ بْنُ عَمْرٍو الدَّارِمِيُّ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏أَبُو بَكْرِ بْنُ عَيَّاشٍ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏أَبِي إِسْحَقَ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏الْبَرَاءِ ‏ ‏قَالَ صَلَّيْنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏نَحْوَ ‏ ‏بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ ‏ ‏ثَمَانِيَةَ عَشَرَ شَهْرًا وَصُرِفَتْ الْقِبْلَةُ إِلَى ‏ ‏الْكَعْبَةِ ‏ ‏بَعْدَ دُخُولِهِ إِلَى ‏ ‏الْمَدِينَةِ ‏ ‏بِشَهْرَيْنِ وَكَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏إِذَا صَلَّى إِلَى ‏ ‏بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ ‏ ‏أَكْثَرَ تَقَلُّبَ وَجْهِهِ فِي السَّمَاءِ وَعَلِمَ اللَّهُ مِنْ قَلْبِ نَبِيِّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏أَنَّهُ ‏ ‏يَهْوَى ‏ ‏الْكَعْبَةَ ‏ ‏فَصَعِدَ ‏ ‏جِبْرِيلُ ‏ ‏فَجَعَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏يُتْبِعُهُ بَصَرَهُ وَهُوَ يَصْعَدُ بَيْنَ السَّمَاءِ وَالْأَرْضِ يَنْظُرُ مَا يَأْتِيهِ بِهِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ‏ )قَدْ نَرَى ‏ ‏تَقَلُّبَ ‏وَجْهِكَ فِي السَّمَاءِ ( الْآيَةَ فَأَتَانَا ‏ ‏آتٍ ‏ ‏فَقَالَ إِنَّ الْقِبْلَةَ قَدْ صُرِفَتْ إِلَى ‏ ‏الْكَعْبَةِ ‏ ‏وَقَدْ صَلَّيْنَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ إِلَى ‏ ‏بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسٍ ‏ وَنَحْنُ رُكُوعٌ فَتَحَوَّلْنَا فَبَنَيْنَا عَلَى مَا مَضَى مِنْ صَلَاتِنَا فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏يَا ‏‏جِبْرِيلُ ‏ ‏كَيْفَ حَالُنَا فِي صَلَاتِنَا إِلَى ‏بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ‏ ‏فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ ‏)وَمَا كَانَ اللَّهُ لِيُضِيعَ ‏ ‏إِيمَانَكُمْ(.رواه الإمام أبي داود في سننه حديث 1738

Sinabi din ng propeta Muhammad (sws) na ang Aqsa ay isa sa tatlong Mosk na dapat dasalan at bisitahin at wala ng iba pa sa tatlong ito.

“لا تشدّ الرحال إلا إلى ثلاثة مساجد. المسجد الحرام والمسجد والأقصى ومسجدي هذا”.

At ang propeta Muhammad (sws) din ang nag guhit ng pagsama ng Aqsa sa Masjidul Haram sa kabanalan kahit na ba hindi sila magkapantay, dahil siya ang nag-utos kay Usama Bin Zaid na isama niya ang hukbo ng mga muslim na pumunta sa Palestina kahit na malaking hamon ang naghihintay sa kanila.

Si Abu Bakr naman, hindi pa natatapos sa mga tumalikod sa relihyong Islam, ay pinadala niya ang mga hukbong muslim sa emperong Romanian para ibalik ang Aqsa sa lakad ng Tawheed=monoteismi at banal na papatnubay. At matapos na mangyari ito nakuwa na ni Umar Bin Al-Khattab ang susi ng Quds at pumagaspas na ang bandila ng kaisahan ng Allah sa langit ng Aqsa mahigit limang dantaon.

Ayon naman sa Hadith na susunod, ang Aqsa ay nailagay sa mundong ito matapos ma ilagay ang Masjidul Haram ng apatnapung taon; ang pagitan nila ay hindi kalakihan.

حَدَّثَنِي ‏ ‏عُمَرُ بْنُ حَفْصٍ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏أَبِي ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏الْأَعْمَشُ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏إِبْرَاهِيمُ التَّيْمِيُّ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏أَبِيهِ ‏( ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏أَبِي ذَرٍّ ‏ ‏رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ ‏ ‏قَالَ قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏أَيُّ مَسْجِدٍ وُضِعَ أَوَّلَ قَالَ ‏ ‏الْمَسْجِدُ الْحَرَامُ ‏ ‏قُلْتُ ثُمَّ أَيٌّ قَالَ ثُمَّ ‏ ‏الْمَسْجِدُ الْأَقْصَى ‏ ‏قُلْتُ كَمْ كَانَ بَيْنَهُمَا قَالَ أَرْبَعُونَ ثُمَّ قَالَ حَيْثُمَا أَدْرَكَتْكَ الصَّلَاةُ فَصَلِّ وَالْأَرْضُ لَكَ مَسْجِدٌ.)
رواه ابن ماجه في سننه حديث 1000
At ayon naman sa hinatid sa atin ni Hisham Ibnu Ammar, ay malaki ang ganting pala ni Allah (swt) para sa mga magdadasal sa Aqsa:
حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏هِشَامُ بْنُ عَمَّارٍ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏أَبُو الْخَطَّابِ الدِّمَشْقِيُّ ‏ ‏حَدَّثَنَا ‏ ‏رُزَيْقٌ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ الْأَلْهَانِيُّ ‏ ‏عَنْ ‏ ‏أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ ‏ ‏قَالَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ‏ ‏صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ‏ ‏صَلَاةُ الرَّجُلِ فِي بَيْتِهِ بِصَلَاةٍ وَصَلَاتُهُ فِي مَسْجِدِ الْقَبَائِلِ بِخَمْسٍ وَعِشْرِينَ صَلَاةً وَصَلَاتُهُ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ الَّذِي يُجَمَّعُ فِيهِ بِخَمْسِ مِائَةِ صَلَاةٍ وَصَلَاتُهُ فِي ‏ ‏الْمَسْجِدِ الْأَقْصَى ‏ ‏بِخَمْسِينَ أَلْفِ صَلَاةٍ وَصَلَاتُهُ فِي ‏ ‏مَسْجِدِي ‏ ‏بِخَمْسِينَ أَلْفِ صَلَاةٍ وَصَلَاةٌ فِي ‏ ‏الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ ‏ ‏بِمِائَةِ أَلْفِ صَلَاةٍ./ رواه الإمام أحمد في مسنده حديث 21286

Sinabi naman ni Muhaammad Ibn Ahmad Al-Maqdisiy, at siya ay isa sa mga arabong globetrotter, nilibut niya halos lahat ng Arabik na bansa at ibapa, binigyan niya ito ng peryang larawan, at tungkol sa Palestina naman, ang bansa ng Aqsa, at ang simula at pundasyon ng pagpala, sa libro niyang: “ Ahsan Al-Taqasem fee ma’arifati Al-Aqaleem” at ang kahulugan nito ay: pinaka mabuting pangmukha sa kaalaman tungkol sa mga teritoryo. Deniscribihin niya sa libro na ito ang Biladul Sham (mga bansa ng Sham*) at ang mga pagpuri dito, at bakit ito ay pinagpala:

*Sham: Lumang Termino para sa : Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Jordan at ibang bahagi ng Turkey.

“Ang Teritoryo ng Sham ay mataas, ito ay ang bahay ng mga propeta at sentro ng mga mabubuti, ito ay ang metal ng mga alternitibo, at ang pangangailangalan ng mga nobel na tao, nandito ang unang Qibla*, dito sisingilin ang mga tao, at dito ang paglakad nila, ito ay ang banal na lupain,…..dito nag punta si Ibraheem, at dito din ang libingan niya, nandito ang bahay ni Ayyoob at dasalan ni Dawood, nandito din ang mga lungsod ni Sulaiman, dito ang lupa ni Ishaq at ang nanay niya, dito ipinanganak si Isa, dito din ang nayon ni Talut, napatay si Jalut dito…

Qibla: ang direksyon sa pagdadasal ng mga muslim.

يقول المقدسي في كتابه أحسن التقاسيم عن عموم بركة بلاد الشام :
” إقليم الشام جليل الشأن، ديار النبيين ومركز الصالحين، ومعدن البدلاء ومطلب الفضلاء، به القبلة الأولى، وموضع الحشر والمسرى، والأرض المقدسة، والرباطات الفاضلة، والثغور الجليلة والجبال الشريفة، ومُهاجَر إبراهيم وقبره، وديار أيوب وبئره، ومحراب داود وبابه، وعجائب سليمان ومدنه، وتربة إسحق وأمه، ومولد المسيح ومهده، وقرية طالوت ونهره، ومقتل جالوت وحصنه، وجبّ أرميا وحبسه، ومسجد أوريا وبيته، وقبة محمد وبابه، وصخرة موسى وربوة عيسى ومحراب زكريا ومعرك يحيى، ومشاهد الأنبياء وقرى أيوب، ومنازل يعقوب، والمسجد الأقصى، وجبل زيتا، ……..”
At bakit ang Aqsa ay ganito kahalaga? At pati yuong mga paligid niya ay nadamay sa pagpuri, kabanalan, kataasan, kalinisan, at pagpala?
Dahil:
– Ito ang palawang Mosk na nilagay sa mundong ito.
– Isa sa mga tatlong Mosk na minensyon ng propeta Muhammad (sws)na dapat bisitahin.
– Isa sa mga tatlong Mosk na puweding mag I’tikaf* sa luob niya.
* I’itikaf: ang pananatili sa mosk para lang magsamba.
– Ang dasal dito ay katumbas ng limampung dasal sa ganting pala.
– Paglabas ng nagdasal dito ay para siyang bagong panganak dahil walang kasalanan.
– Ito ang unang Qibla ng mga muslim.
– Dito tumira halus lahat ng mga propeta.
– Ito ang pinipili ng mga muslim na tirahan dahil sa pagpala.
– Ito ay palaging natatarget ng mga kaaway at mula pa nuon ay marami ng napatay para dito.
-Ito ang lupa ng mga Mujahedeen*.
* Mujahedeen: mga lumalaban para kay Allah (swt).
– Dito nag dasal si propeta Muhammad (sws) bilang Imam (pinuno) ng lahat ng mga propeta.
– Galing dito itinaas ng Allah (swt) si Muhammad (sws) sa langit nong gabi ng “Israa at Miraj”.
– Ang Aqsa ay sumaksi at sumasaksi sa kabutihan o kasamaan na nangyari sa mga muslim mula nuong natanim ito sa mundo.
– Itong lugar na ito at ang mga paligid niya ay ang sentro ng pagmamlasakit ng propeta Muhammad (sws).
– Dito ibababaa ni Allah (swt) si propeta Isa (alayhi Assalam) galing sa langit.
– At hindi kahuli hulihan ay : ang Aqsa at ang mga paligid nito ay lugar ng maraming mga senyas ng araw ng pagkabuhay ng muli.
– Marami pang iba ibang mga dahilan kung bakit ang Aqsa ay minamahal at malawak at malaki ang katayuan nito sa mga puso natin bilang muslim, at hindi makakaya ng kahit sinu mang tao na isulat o sakupin lahat nang ito, dahil marami tayong hindi alam at lahat ng ito ay nasa kaalaman lang ng Allah (swt).
Sa ngalan ng lahat ng mga muslim, Ikaw o Aqsa ay nasa puso’t isapan namin, at tuloy tuloy kanamin pinagdadasal..

Assalamu Alaikum!

Assalamu Alaykum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh!

Bismillah Al Rahman Al Raheem

Bukhari Volume 3, Book 43, Number 625:
Narrated Muawiya bin Suwald:

I heard Al-Bara’ bin ‘Azib saying, “The Prophet orders us to do seven things and prohibited us from doing seven other things.” Then Al-Bara’ mentioned the following:–

(1) To pay a visit to the sick (inquiring about his health),

(2) to follow funeral processions,

(3) to say to a sneezer, “May Allah be merciful to you” (if he says, “Praise be to Allah!”),

(4) to return greetings,

(5) to help the oppressed,

(6) to accept invitations,

(7) to help others to fulfill their oaths. (See Hadith No. 753, Vol. 7)

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace and blessing be upon him) observed: You shall not enter Paradise so long as you do not affirm belief (in all those things which are the articles of faith) and you will not believe as long as you do not love one another. Should I not direct you to a thing which, if you do, will foster love amongst you: (i. e.) give currency to (the practice of paying salutation to one another by saying) as-salamu alaikum. Muslim Book 001, Number 0096:

It is narrated on the authority of ‘Abdullah b. ‘Amr that a man asked the Messenger of Allah (may peace and blessings be upon him) which of the merits (is superior) in Islam. He (the Holy Prophet) remarked: That you provide food and extend greetings to one whom you know or do not know.(Muslim)

Abu Sa’id Kbudri reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: Avoid sitting on the paths. They (his Companions) said: Allah’s Messenger. there is no other help to it (but to sit here as we) hold our meetings and discuss matters there. Thereupon Allah’s Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: If you have to sit at all, theg fulfil the rights, of the path. They said: What are their rights? Thereupon he said: Keeping the eye downward (so that you may not stare at the women), refraining from doing some harm to the other and exchanging mutual greetings (saying as-Salamu ‘Alaikum to one another) and commanding the good and forbidding the evil. Muslim Book 024, Number 5293:

Praise be to Allaah.

All people have the custom of greeting one another, and every group has its own distinctive greeting that distinguishes them from other people.

The Arabs used to greet one another with the words “An’im sabaahan” or “An’imu sabaahan” [equivalent to “Good morning” – Translator], using words derived from “al-ni’mah”, which means good living after the morning. The idea was that because the morning is the first part of the day, if a person encounters something good in the morning, the rest of the day will be good too.

When Islam came, Allaah prescribed that the manner of greeting among Muslims should be “Al-salaamu alaykum,” and that this greeting should only be used among Muslims and not for other nations. The meaning of salaam (literally, peace) is harmlessness, safety and protection from evil and from faults. The name al-Salaam is a Name of Allaah, may He be exalted, so the meaning of the greeting of salaam which is required among Muslims is, “May the blessing of His Name descend upon you.” The usage of the preposition ‘ala in ‘alaykum (upon you) indicates that the greeting is inclusive.

Ibn al-Qayyim said in Badaa’i’ al-Fawaa’id (144):

“Allaah, the Sovereign, the Most Holy, the Peace, prescribed that the greeting among the people of Islam should be ‘al-salaamu ‘alaykum’, which is better than all the greetings of other nations which include impossible ideas or lies, such as saying, ‘May you live for a thousand years,’ or things that are not accurate, such as ‘An’im sabaahan (Good morning),’ or actions that are not right, such as prostrating in greeting. Thus the greeting of salaam is better than all of these, because it has the meaning of safety which is life, without which nothing else can be achieved. So this takes precedence over all other aims or objectives. A person has two main aims in life: to keep himself safe from evil, and to get something good. Keeping safe from evil takes precedence over getting something good…”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) made spreading salaam a part of faith. Al-Bukhaari (12, 28 and 6236), Muslim (39), Ahmad (2/169), Abu Dawood (5494), al-Nisaa’i, (8/107) and Ibn Hibbaan (505) narrated from ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Umar that a man asked the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): “What is the best thing in Islam?” He said, “Feeding others and giving the greeting of salaam to those whom you know and those whom you do not know.”

Ibn Hajar said in al-Fath (1/56):

“i.e., do not single out anybody out of arrogance or to impress them, but do it to honour the symbols of Islam and to foster Islamic brotherhood.”

Ibn Rajab said in al-Fath (1/43):

“The hadeeth makes the connection between feeding others and spreading salaam because this combines good actions in both word and deed, which is perfect good treatment (ihsaan). Indeed, this is the best thing that you can do in Islam after the obligatory duties.”

Al-Sanoosi said in Ikmaal al-Mu’allim (1/244):

“What is meant by salaam is the greeting between people, which sows seeds of love and friendship in their hearts, as does giving food. There may be some weakness in the heart of one of them, which is dispelled when he is greeted, or there may be some hostility, which is turned to friendship by the greeting.”

Al-Qaadi said in Ikmaal al-Mu’allim (1:276):

“Here the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was urging the believers to soften their hearts. The best Islamic attitude is to love one another and greet one another, and this is achieved by words and deeds. The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) urged the Muslims to foster love between one another by exchanging gifts and food, and by spreading salaam, and he forbade the opposite, namely forsaking one another, turning away from one another, spying on one another, seeking out information about one another, stirring up trouble and being two faced.

Love is one of the duties of Islam and one of the pillars of the Islamic system. One should give salaams to those whom one knows and those whom one does not know, out of sincerity towards Allaah; one should not try to impress other people by giving salaams only to those whom one knows and no-one else. This also entails an attitude of humility and spreading the symbols of this ummah through the word of salaam.”

Thus the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) explained that this salaam spreads love and brotherhood. Muslim (54), Ahmad (2/391), and al-Tirmidhi (2513) narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“You will not enter Paradise until you believe, and you will not believe until you love one another. Shall I not tell you about something which, if you do it, you will love one another? Spread salaam amongst yourselves.”

Al-Qaadi ‘Ayaad said in al-Ikmaal (1/304):

“This is urging us to spread salaam, as mentioned above, among those whom we know and those whom we do not know. Salaam is the first level of righteousness and the first quality of brotherhood, and it is the key to creating love. By spreading salaam the Muslims’ love for one another grows stronger and they demonstrate their distinctive symbols and spread a feeling of security amongst themselves. This is the meaning of Islam.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) also explained the reward earned by the one who says salaam, as was reported by al-Nisaa’i in ‘Aml al-yawm wa’l-laylah (368) and al-Bukhaari in al-Adab al-Mufrad (586) and by Ibn Hibban (493). They reported from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that a man passed by the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) whilst he was sitting with some others, and said “Salaam ‘alaykum (peace be upon you).” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “[He will have] ten hasanaat (rewards).” Another man passed by and said “Salaam ‘alaykum wa rahmat-Allaah (peace be upon you and the mercy of Allaah).” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “[He will have] twenty hasanaat.” Another man passed by and said “Salaam ‘alaykum wa rahmat-Allaahi wa barakaatuhu (peace be upon you and the mercy of Allaah and His blessings).” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “[He will have] thirty hasanaat.”

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) commanded us to return salaams, and made it a right and a duty. Ahmad (2/540), al-Bukhaari (1240), Muslim (2792), al-Nisaa’i in al-Yawm wa’l-Laylah (221) and Abu Dawood (5031) all reported that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The Muslim has five rights over his fellow-Muslim: he should return his salaams, visit him when he is sick, attend his funeral, accept his invitation, and pray for mercy for him [say “Yarhamuk Allaah”] when he sneezes.”

generosity in Islam.

As humans, we have an innate sense of morality.  No matter what religion, race or colour we are, certain qualities serve as the moral standard.  We admire justice, bravery, honesty and compassion.  We abhor those who demonstrate treachery, cruelty or corruption.  Moral standards are universal, and one of the most important aspects of Islam is adherence to high moral standards and good manners.  Prophet Muhammad. May the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, taught Muslims to have the best manners and personal characteristics.  The Prophet’s own high standard of morals and manners made him the best example for Muslims to follow.  God said in the Quran:

“And verily you, O Muhammad, are on an exalted standard of character.” (Quran 68:4)

Generosity was among the countless good qualities of the Prophet Muhammad.  He was the most generous of people and he used to be most generous in Ramadan.[1]

One day the Prophet Muhammad offered the prayer in the mosque and then hurriedly went to his house and returned immediately.  A companion asked  why he left and he replied,

“I left a piece of gold at home which was given for charity and I disliked letting it remain a night in my house, so I bought it to the mosque to distribute.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

Our worldly possessions are bounties from God, who is Al Kareem, the Most Generous.  Muslims believe that everything originates from God and everything will return to Him, thus, it is logical to behave as if that which we possess is merely a loan, something we are obligated to preserve, protect and ultimately share.

Whenever Prophet Muhammad met a miserly person, he advised him to be more generous and charitable.  Ibn `Abbas said that he heard Prophet Muhammad say, “The believer is not the one who eats when his neighbour beside him is hungry,” another companion heard the Prophet say, “The believer is simple and generous, but the wicked person is deceitful and ignoble.”

Generosity Defined

Princeton University wordnet defines generosity as the willingness to give freely.  Islam encourages this concept of generosity so much so that it is embedded in one of the five pillars of Islam, the obligatory charity known as Zakaat.  In Arabic, the term zakaat literally means purification of the heart however; it is also the payment, from surplus money, of an obligatory charity designed by God to provide for all the needy members of the community.  It is a fixed calculable amount.

There is also another form of generosity in Islam called sadaqa.  Linguistically, sadaqa means truthfulness, and some scholars have described it as the heart being truthful to its Creator. Anything given generously – freely to others – with the intention of pleasing God is sadaqaSadaqa can be as simple as a smile, helping an elderly person with their groceries or removing objects from the road or path.

Generosity can be viewed as a wise investment in the future. Generosity or sadaqa may pave the way to Paradise because with every generous act comes great reward from God. However, being generous does not only mean giving freely from what you have in abundance.  Generosity does not lie in giving away something that is no longer useful but in giving freely from the things we love or need.

Aisha (the wife of the Prophet) said, “A lady, along with her two daughters came to me asking for some alms, but she found nothing with me except one date which I gave to her and she divided it between her two daughters.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

God tells us in the Quran that whatever we give away generously, with the intention of pleasing Him, He will replace it. God knows what is in the hearts of men.

Say: “Truly, my Lord enlarges the provision for whom He wills of His slaves, and also restricts it) for him, and whatsoever you spend of anything (in God’s Cause), He will replace it.  And He is the Best of providers.” (Quran 34:39)

The Value of Generosity

The companions of Prophet Muhammad understood the value of being generous. Abdullah ibn Omar was seen in the market buying fodder for his camel on credit.  One of the men queried this knowing that Abdullah had received 4000 dirhams and a blanket the previous day.  It was explained that before nightfall Abdullah had distributed the money amongst the needy.  He then took the blanket, threw it over his shoulder and headed home, but by the time he arrived even the blanket was gone, he had given it to a needy person.

After the death of the Prophet, the people faced great hardship due to drought.  They came to Abu Bakr asking him to provide them with enough to sustain them, but he was unable to help, the treasury was empty.  Just at that time, the camel caravan belonging to Uthman arrived from Damascus.  It was filled with foodstuffs and other goods.  The merchants gathered at Uthman’s house offering him large amounts of money for the goods; however, he turned them down saying he was prepared only to give the goods to the One from whom he would receive the greatest reward.  Uthman gave all the goods to the starving people of Madinah and did not charge them.  He knew that God would reward him with something far greater than money.

Even in the direst of circumstances, person who is a true believer in Almighty God is able to be generous.

The people came to the Prophet Muhammad and asked, “If someone has nothing to give, what will he do?”  He said, “He should work with his hands and benefit himself and also give in charity (from what he earns).”  The people further asked, “If he cannot find even that?”  He replied, “He should help the needy who appeal for help.”  Then the people asked, “If he cannot do that?”  He replied, “Then he should perform good deeds and keep away from evil deeds and this will be regarded as charitable deeds.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)

And God says in the Quran that He will repay the generosity of a believer.

“And whatever you spend in good, it will be repaid to you in full, and you shall not be wronged.” (Quran 2:272)

God is the One who provides for us and He expects us to share generously.  We are encouraged to be benevolent and unselfish with our possessions, with our time and with our exemplary behaviour towards others.

 


Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim

The Islamic month in which Muslims fast, one of the five pillars of Islam.

http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/1668/

Modesty and Islam

Modesty and shyness play a special part between the affairs of the Creator and the created.  All prophets and Messengers encouraged modesty, as the Prophet, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, said:

“Indeed from the teachings of the first prophets which has reached you is, ‘If you do not have shyness, then do as you please.” (Al-Bukhari)

Modesty as a sense of shame or shyness in human beings is a shrinking of the soul from foul conduct, a quality that prevents one from behaving badly towards others or encouraging others to behave badly towards you.  Islamic ethics considers modesty as more than just a question of how a person dresses, and more than just modesty in front of people; rather it is reflected in a Muslim’s speech, dress, and conduct: in public in regards to people, and in private in regards to God.  Any talk of modesty, therefore, must begin with the heart, not the hemline, as the Prophet of Mercy said, ‘Modesty is part of faith,’[1]  and that part of faith must lie in the heart.

Take reservation in speech.  As with everything in Islam, speech should be moderate.  Raising one’s voice in venting anger simply shows one lacks the ability to contain it, and only damage will ensue from it.  Uncontrolled anger, for example, can lead one to verbally abuse and physically assault another, both of which take off the veil of bashfulness one is endowed with, exposing the shameful ego within.  The Prophet said:

“A strong person is not the person who throws his adversaries to the ground.  A strong person is the person who contains himself when he is angry.” (Saheeh al-Bukhari)

A strong person who believes feels shy in front of God and His creation, since God knows and sees everything.  He feels shy to disobey his Lord and feels shame if he sins or acts inappropriately, whether in private or public.  This type of modesty is acquired and is directly related to one’s faith, where one’s awareness of God increases one’s “shyness” in front of Him.

Islamic morality divides modesty into natural and acquired.  Modesty is a quality inherent in girls and boys, a certain type of modesty that is natural in human beings.  If manifests itself, for instance, in a natural human urge to cover one’s private parts.  According to the Quran, when Adam and Eve ate from the fruit of the forbidden tree, they became aware that their private parts were exposed, and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise, a natural result of their modesty.

Islamic scholars consider modesty to be a quality that distinguishes human beings from animals.  Animals follow their instincts without feeling any shame or a sense of right or wrong.  Hence, the less modesty a person has, the more he resembles animals.  The more modesty a person has, the closer he is to being human.  Islam has mandated certain legislations which induce this sense of modesty within humans. These legislation range from seeking permission before entering any room and distancing one from others while relieving oneself, to mandating certain manners of dress for men and women alike. Another way that modesty may be attained is by associating with modest people – people in whose presence a person feels embarrassed to do anything shameful – as the Prophet said:

“I advise you to be shy toward God, the Exalted, in the same way that you are shy toward a pious man from your people.”[2]

Being shy of a stranger’s gaze is one of the driving forces behind modesty in dress.  This can be seen in children, who naturally shy away from strangers, sometimes hiding from them in their mother’s skirts or behind their father’s legs.  In Islam, screening most of your body off from the gaze of a stranger, especially of the opposite sex, is actually mandated as a means to avoid falling into conduct that may lead to extra-marital or pre-marital sex.  God says,

“Tell the believing men to lower their gaze and be modest.  That is purer for them.  Lo!  God is Aware of what they do.  And tell the believing women to lower their gaze and be modest, and to display of their adornment only that which is apparent, and to draw their veils over their chests, and not to reveal their adornment.” (Quran 24:30)

The verse then mentions the people before whom one is exempted from veiling; the ones who cannot be called ‘strangers’.  Also, the command is relaxed as one matures: an aged woman who has no hope of marriage can discard the overcoats that screen what they are wearing underneath.[3]

As seen from this verse, Islamic ethics view modesty not as a virtue for women only, but for men as well.  Thus, men must also dress modestly, being careful to wear loose flowing and opaque clothes through which the area between their waist and knees be totally covered. Tight pants or translucent clothing is prohibited. This modesty is reflected upon Muslim male clothing throughout the world, long shirts reaching below the thighs, and loose flowing trousers.

 It may still seem, however, that women bear the main brunt of ‘dressing modestly’. When one reflects, however,  about the predator and the prey in illegal relations between the sexes; the prey which is hidden escapes being a victim.  Besides, another verse says modesty in dress actually identifies one as being a believing woman,[4]  a ‘target’ which the devout Muslim, or any decent man, would be motivated to protect rather than abuse.

The way to develop modesty is to think about whether he or she would do the sin they are contemplating in front of their parents.  A person with a shred of shame in their heart will not commit any lewd act in front of their parents.  So what about doing so in front of God?  Is not God much worthier that such acts not be done in His sight?  Thus, Islam considers that the modesty of a believer in front of God must be greater than in front of people. This is manifest in the saying of the Prophet when a man asked him about remaining naked in the house while alone. The Prophet responded:

“God is more deserving than other people of shyness.” (Abu Dawood)

Early Muslims used to say, “Be shy toward God when you are in private in the same way you are shy in front of people when you are in public.”  Another one of their sayings is, “Do not be a devoted slave of God in your public behavior while you are an enemy to Him in your private affairs.”

Modesty can therefore be seen as the means by which morals and ethics in society are maintained and pursued.  Shyness from people and society may be a reason to be modest, but this modesty will not remain due to the fact that what is immodest one day in a secular society may be totally acceptable in another. Thus, the key to modesty is knowing that God is aware of what you do and shying away from that which He forbids.  God only desires what is best for us.  So to seek what is best for us is to submit to what He has in mind for us.  The only way to properly know what that is, is to believe in what he sent down to us through His Prophet, Muhammad, and to embrace the religion (Islam) that His Messenger brought us.

 


Footnotes:

[1] Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim.

[2] Ahmad in his work “Az-Zuhd”.

[3] Quran 24:60.

Watch your Intentions!

It is narrated on the authority of Umar ibn al-Khattab who said: I heard the Messenger of God say:

“All actions are judged by motives, and each person will be rewarded according to their intention.  Thus, he whose migration was to God and His Messenger, his migration is to God and His Messenger; but he whose migration was for some worldly thing he might gain, or for a wife he might marry, his migration is to that for which he migrated.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari, Saheeh Muslim)

Background

This hadeeth is indeed one of the greatest and most important of the sayings of Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, as it sets one of the most important principles in the religion of Islam, specifically in regards to the acceptance one’s religion and deeds by God, and generally to all other normal every day activity in which a person involves himself.  This principle is that in order for any action to be accepted and thus rewarded by God, it must be done purely for his sake.  This concept is often called “sincerity to God”, but the most exact meaning would be “purity of intention”.

At one of the stages of the life of the Prophet, God ordered all the Muslims to migrate from Mecca to the newborn Islamic state of Medina.  In this hadeeth, the Prophet gave an example of two types of people in regards to this religious service of migration:

·        The first example was that of the person who migrated to Medina purely for the sake of God, seeking His Pleasure and seeking to fulfill His command.  The Prophet stated that the deed of this type of person will be accepted by God and he will be rewarded in the fullest.

·        The second example was of a person who fulfilled this religious service outwardly, but his intention was not the pleasure of God nor fulfilling His Command, and so this type of person, although he may achieve what he was intending in this life, will not receive reward for it from God, and the deed is not one which is considered acceptable.

In Islam, there are two realms to a person’s life, the religious and the mundane.  Although there is a clear separation between the two in regards to religious jurisprudence, they are in fact inseparable, as Islam is a religion which legislates in matter family, society and politics as well as the belief and worship of God.  Thus, although this saying of the Prophet appears to apply to the religious aspect of a persons’ life, it actually applies to both.

Purity of Intention in the Religious Realm

As mentioned earlier, this hadeeth sets the first principle for one’s deeds to be accepted by God, which is that they should be done purely for God.  In regards to those deeds which have been commanded as a form of religious devotion, known as worship, one must do them for God Alone, for it is God who commanded the service or deed to be done and loves it.  These deeds include the likes of prayer, (Salah), Fasting, the offering of the Compulsory Charity (Zakah), the performance of the Lesser or Grater Pilgrimage to Mecca (Umrah and Hajj), and all other service which have been ordained in the religion.  Even though the deeds may appear outwardly, as in this hadeeth, to be one accepted, of pivotal importance is the intention which the person has when performing them.

A person who directs any of these or other religious service to other deities other than or alongside God will never be accepted, and one who commits this heresy is deemed as committing the greatest sin against God, polytheism: to associate others with God in those things which are specific to Him.  Islam is a religion which believes and practices true and strict monotheism.  This monotheism not only entails that that there is only One Sole God and Creator, but also that this God has the right that all worship and acts of deed be done solely for His sake and none else.  This concept is once which God ordered all His Prophets to preach, as He says in the Quran:

“And they were not commanded except that they should worship God, keeping the religion pure for Him, and worship none but Him Alone, and establish the Prayer and offer the Compulsory Charity, and that is the upright religion.” (Quran 98:5)

Here we see that even though a person may seem to be performing acts of devotion and worship to God outwardly, if they associate any other being in this worship, whether they be angels, prophets, or righteous people, then this deed is not accepted by God.  Moreover, they fall in to the great sin of polytheism.

Another aspect of this purity of intention is that a person should never seek any worldly gains through religious service and acts of worship, even if that worldly gain be something permissible.  In the hadeeth mentioned above, the second person did not perform this religious obligation of migration for other deities besides or alongside God, nor did he intend something intrinsically evil.  Rather his intention was something deemed permissible in the religion.  Still, however, the act was not accepted by God, and the person may or may not have received what he intended from this worldly life.  Thus, if a person seeks any permissible worldly gain though an action, the reward of the deed diminishes.

If a person desires something deemed as impermissible by Islam from religious service and worship, this is considered as a sin.  Islam is a religion which encourages humbleness and selflessness, reprimanding those who seek praise of others and status in this worldly life.  Thus, if one seeks the praise of others through religious service and worship, not only is it not accepted by God, but the person is deemed liable for punishment in the afterlife.  The Prophet mentioned the first people to be sentenced to the Hellfire in the afterlife, and from them is the following:

“A person learned [religious] knowledge and taught it [to others], as well as reciting the Quran.  He will be brought [to the presence of God], and God will mention to him all the favors he granted him, and he recognized them.  God will ask him, ‘What did you do with them?’

He will answer, ‘I learned [religious] knowledge and taught it [to others], and I recited the Quran purely for Your sake.’

God will say, ‘You have lied!  Rather you learned [religious] knowledge to be called a scholar, and you recited the Quran to be called a recitor, and it was said of you!’  Then it was commanded [to punish] him.  So he was dragged on his face and he was thrown into the Fire.” (an-Nasa’i)

http://www.islamreligion.com/articles/360/

Prophet Idris, As’hab Arras, Dhul Kifl, Yasin people.

 

PROPHET ENOCH (IDRIS)

 

Allah has praised Enoch, describing him as being a prophet and truthful: Mention in the Book (Quran) Idris (Enoch). Verily! He was a man of truth (and) a prophet. We raised him to a high station. (Ch 19:56-57 Quran).

 

Enoch was born and raised in Babylon following the teachings and religion of Prophet Adam (pbuh) and his son Seth (pbuh). Enoch was the 5th generation of the Prophet Adam. He called the people back to his forefathers religion, but only a few listened to him, while the majority turned away.

 

Prophet Enoch and his followers left Babylon for Egypt. There he carried on his mission, calling people to what is just and fair, teaching them certain prayers and instructing them to fast on certain days and to give a portion of their wealth to the poor.

 

He was the first of the Children of Adam to be given prophethood after Adam and Seth (peace upon them). It is reported that he was the 1st to invent the basic form of writing. Some of his wise sayings are:

 

Happy is he who looks at his own deeds and appoints them as pleaders to his Lord

None can show better gratitude for Allah’s favors than he who shares them with others. Do not envy people for what they have as they will only enjoy it for a short while. He who indulges in excess will not benefit from it. The real joy of life is to have wisdom.


 

 

DHUL KIFL

 

Allah the Almighty declared : Remember Ishmael and Idris and Dhul Kifl, all were from among those who observe patience. (Ch 21:85-86 Quran).

 

Allah directed: Remember Our slaves, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (all) owners of strength (in worshipping Us) and also of religious understanding. Verily, We did choose them by granting them (a good thing ) the remembrance of the home (in the Hereafter and they used to make the people remember it and also they used to invite the people to obey Allah and to do good deeds for the Hereafter). And they are in Our Sight, verily of the chosen and the best! Remember Ishmael, Elisha, and Dhul Kifl all are among the best. (Ch 38:45-48 Quran).

 

Ibn Jarir narrated that he was not a prophet but he was a righteous man. He supported his people to suffice their needs and administrated justice among them. That is why he was called Dhul Kifl. (means possessor of, or giving, a double requital or portion)

 


 

 

Dwellers of Ar-Rass

 

Allah Almighty revealed: Noah’s people, when they denied the Messengers We drowned them, and We made them as a sign for mankind. We have prepared a painful torment for the Zalimeen (polytheists and wrongdoers) Also Ad and Thamud and the dwellers of Ar Rass and many generations in between. For each of them We put forward examples (as proofs and lessons etc), and each of them We brought to utter ruin (because of their disbelief and evil deeds). (Ch 25:37-39 Quran)

 

Allah the Exalted revealed: Denied before them (these pagans of Mecca who denied you, O Muhammad) the people of Noah and the dwellers of Ar Rass, and Thamud and Ad and Pharaoh, and the brethren of Lot, and the dewellers of the Wood, and the people of Tubba, everyone of them denied their Messengers so My Threat took effect. (Ch 50:12-14 Quran).

 

These verses indicate that the dwellers of Ar Rass were destroyed as they were the other people who refused to believe in the prophets of Allah

 

Ibn jarir stated that the dwellers of Ar Rass were the people of one of Thamud’s villages. Allah sent a prophet to them called Huzlah Ibn Safwan. They denied and killed him, so Allah destroyed them.

 

Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Al Hassan narrated: “The dwellers of AR Rass had a well sufficing them and their land. They also had a just and good-hearted king. When he died, they were much grieved for him. After four days Satan took his form and said: “I was not deed, but I kept absent from you to see your reaction.” They were very joyful. He commanded them to set up a curtain between him and them and told them that he would never die. A great number of them believed him and were fascinated with and worshiped him. Then Allah sent them a prophet telling them that it was only Satan who was addressing them from behind the curtain. He forbade them to worship him and commanded them to worship only Allah and no partner with Him. In spite of that, they killed their prophet and threw his body into a well. Therefore Allah destroyed them and their homes.”

 


 

 

 

Yasin People

 

All that we know about these people is what Allah Almighty has told us in the Glorious Quran: Put forward to them a similitude the (story of ) the dwellers of the town, (it is said that the town was Antioch, Antakiya), when there came Messengers to them. When We sent them two Messengers, they belied them both, so We reinforced them with a third and they said: “Verily! We have been sent to you as Messengers.” They (people of the town) said: “You are only human beings like ourselves and the Most Beneficent (Allah) has revealed nothing, you are only telling lies.” The Messengers said: “Our Lord knows that we have been sent as Messengers to you, our duty is only to convey plainly (the Message).” The people said: “For us we see an evil omen from you, if you cease not we will surely stone you and a painful torment will touch you from us.” The Messengers said: “Your evil omens be with you! (Do you call it “evil omen”) because you are admonished? Nay but you are a people Musrifun (transgressing all bounds by committing all kinds of great sins, and by disobeying Allah).” And there came running from the farthest part of the town, a man saying: “O my people! Obey the Messengers obey those who ask no wagers of you (for themselves) and who are rightly guided. Why should I not worship Him (Allah Alone) Who has created me and to Whom you shall be returned. Shall I take besides Him aliah (gods) if the Most Beneficent (Allah) intends me any harm, their intercession will be of no use whatsoever, nor can they save me? Then verily, I should be in plain error. Verily! I have believed in your Lord, so listen to me!” It was said (to him when the disbelievers killed him): “Enter Paradise.” He said: “Would that my people knew! That my Lord (Allah) has forgive me, and made me of the honored ones!” We sent not against his people after him a host from heaven nor do We send (such a thing). IT was but one shout and lo! They (all) were silent (dead destroyed). Alas for mankind! There never came a Messenger to them but they used to mock at him. Do they not see how many of the generations We have destroyed before them? Verily, they will not return to them. (Ch 36:13-31 Quran).

 


 

 

prophet Adam 6

there are many traditions concerning the place of Adam’s descent upon earth. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated that Ibn Abbas said: “Adam descended on land ‘Dihna’ between Mecca and taif.” AL Hassan said that Adam descended in India and Eve in Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), Iblis Bodistiman (Iraq), and the serpent in Ashahan (Iran). This last was also reported by Ibn Hatim.

Ass’ady related that Adam descended with the Black Stone (a large black stone set into the wall of the ka’ba in Mecca. It is said to have come from Paradise) in India, and he had a handful of the seeds of Paradise. He sowed them in India and they grew into the fragrant tree therein.

Ibn Umar said that Adam descended on As-Safa and Eve on Al Marwa ( names of two mountains in the vicinity of the sacred house in Mecca. Part of the rites of pilgrimage (hajj) includes pacing between these two hills in commemoration of H’s search for water). This was also reported by Ibn Hatim. Abdul Razzaq reported that Abi Musa Al-shari said that when Allah ordered Adam to descend from Paradise to earth, He taught him the making of everything and provided him with the crops from Paradise.

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. One this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth.” (al Bukhari)

Adam knew he bade farewell to peace and he left Paradise. On earth he had to face conflict and struggle. No sooner had one ended than another began. He also had to toil to sustain himself. He had to protect himself with clothes and weapons and protect his wife and children from the wild beasts. Above all he had to struggle with the spirit of evil. Satan, the cause of his expulsion from Paradise, continued to beguile him and his children in an effort to have them thrown into the eternal hellfire. The battle between good and evil is continuous, but those who follow Allah’s guidance and should fear nothing while those who disobey Allah and follow Iblis will be damned along with him.

Adam grasped all of this and with the knowledge of this suffering he started his life on the earth. The only thing that allowed his grief was that he was master of the earth and had to make it yield to him. He was the one who had to perpetuate, cultivate and construct and populate the earth. He was also the one who had to procreate and raise children who would change and improve the world.

The pinnacle of earthly bliss was reached when Adam and Eve witnessed the birth of their 1st children, a set of twins. Adam was a devoted father and Eve a contented mother. The twins were Cain (Qabil) and his sister. Later Eve gave birth to a second set of twins, Abel (Habil) and his sister. The family enjoyed the bounties and fruits of the earth provided by their Lord. The children grew up to be strong and healthy young adults. Cain tilled the land while Abel raised cattle.

The time arrived when the two young men desired life partners. This was part of Allah’s plan for mankind, to multiply and form nations with different cultures and colors. Allah revealed to Adam that he should marry each son to the twin sister of the other. Adam instructed his children according to Allah’s command, but Cain was displeased with the partner chosen for him, for Abel’s twin sister was not as beautiful as his own.

It appears that since the beginning of time, physical beauty has been a factor in the attraction between man and women. This attraction caused Cain to envy his brother Abel. He rebelled against Allah’s command by refusing to accept his father’s advice.

At first glance Cain’s rebellion might appear strange, but we should remember that although man has a pure nature, the potential for dichotomy exists. In other words, he had both good and bad qualities. He can become greedy, covetous,possessive, selfish and even destructive. Man is, therefore capable of seeking self-satisfaction even if it leads to failure in this life and in the hereafter. The path to goodness lies in harnessing the enemy within him, his baser self by controlling evil thoughts and deeds and practicing moderation in his desires and actions. His reward then will be the delights of this world and the hereafter. Thus Allah tests us through our divided nature.

Adam was in a dilemma. He wanted peace and harmony in his family, so he invoked Allah for help. Allah commanded that each son offer a sacrifice, and he whose offering was accepted would have right on his side. Abel offered his best camel while Cain offered his worst grain. His sacrifice was not accepted by Allah because of his disobedience to his father and the insincerity in his offering.

This enraged Cain even further. Realizing that his hopes marrying his own beautiful sister were fading, he threatened his brother. “I will kill you! I refuse to see you happy while I remain unhappy!”

Abel feeling sorry for his brother, replied, “It would be more proper for you, my brother to search for the cause of your unhappiness and then walk in the way of peace. Allah accepts the deeds only from those who serve and fear Him, not from those who reject His Commands.”

Abel was intelligent, obedient, and always ready to obey the will of Allah. This contrasted sharply with his brother who was arrogant, selfish and disobedient to his Lord. Abel did not fear his brother’s threats, but neither did he want his brother to be hurt, Allah had blessed Abel with purity and compassion.

Hoping to allay the hatred seething in his brother Abel said, ” My brother, you are deviating from the right path and are sinful in your decisions. It is better that you repent to Allah and forget about your foolish threat. But if you do not then I will leave the matter in the hands of Allah. You alone will bear the consequence of your sin, for the Fire is the reward of the wrong-doers.”

This brotherly plea did nothing to lessen the hatred in Cain’s heart, nor did he show fear of Allah’s punishment. Even familial considerations were cast aside. Cain struck his brother with a stone killing him instantly. This was the 1st death and the 1st criminal act committed by man on earth.


When Abel had not appeared for some time, Adam began to search for him but found no trace of his beloved son. He asked Cain about Abel’s whereabouts. Cain insolently replied that he was not his brother’s keeper nor his protector. From these words his father understood that Abel was dead and Adam was filled with grief.

Meanwhile Cain did not know what to do with his brother’s corpse. He carried it on his back wandering from place to place trying to hide it. His anger had now subsided and his conscience was saddled with guilt. He was tiring under the burden of the corpse which had started to have a stench. As a mercy, and to show that dignity could be retained even in death, Allah sent two ravens that began fighting, causing the death of one. The victorious bird used its beak and claws to dig a hole in the ground, rolled its victim into it and covered it with sand.

Witnessing this, Cain was overcome with shame and remorse. “Woe unto me!” he exclaimed. “I was unable to do what this raven has done, that is to hide my brother’s corpse.” Cain then buried his brother. This was also the 1st burial of man.

Allah the Almighty revealed: And (O Muhammad) recite to them (the Jews) the story of the two sons of Adam (Abel and Cain) in truth; when each offered a sacrifice to Allah, it was accepted from the one but not from the other. The latter said to the former; “I will surely kill you.”

the former said: “Verily Allah accepts only from those who are Al Muttaqeen (the pious). If you do stretch your hand against me to kill me I shall never stretch my hand against you to kill you, for I fear Allah; the Lord of the Alameen (mankind, jinn, and all that exists). Verily I intend to let you draw my sin onyourself as well as yours then you will be one of the dwellers of the Fire, and that is the recompense of the Zalimeen (polytheists, and wrongdoers).”

So the self of the other (latter one) encouraged him and made fair seeming to him the murder of his brother; he murdered him and became one of the losers. Allah sent a crow who scratched the ground to show him to hide the dead body of his brother. He (the murderer) said: “Woe to me! Am I not even able to be as this crow and to hide the dead body of my brother?” Then he became one of those who regretted.(Ch 5:27-31).

Ibn Abbas, Ibn Masud and a group of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) related that inter-marriage of the male of one pregnancy with the female of another had been in practice among Adam’s children. Abel wanted to marry Cain’s sister, but Cain wanted her for himself because she was very beautiful. Adam ordered him to give her in marriage to his brother but he refused. SO Adam ordered both of them to offer a sacrifice, then went to Mecca to perform the pilgrimage. After Adam had left, they offered their sacrifices; Abel offered a fat lamb, he was a shepherd, while Cain offered a bundle of worst grain. fire descended and devoured Abel’s sacrifice, leaving that of Cain so he became angry and said: “I will surely kill you so that you will not marry my sister.” Abel replied, “Allah accepts from those who fear Him.”

According to Abu Ja’afar al Baqer, Adam was watching their offering and was sure that Abel’s sacrifice would be accepted. Cain complained to Adam that the acceptance was due to his supplication for Abel and that he had not done the same for him, so he promised his father to settle the matter between himself and his brother. One night, Abel was late returning from tending his flock. Adam sent Cain to see what happened to him. When he found him, he glared at him saying: “yours was accepted, and mine was not.” Abel replied, “Allah only accepts from the Allah-fearing.” Cain became angry on hearing this and hit him with a piece of iron that was with him and thus killing him. In another version it was said that he killed him with a rock to the head while he was sleeping.

Adam was utterly grief stricken by the loss of his two sons. One was dead, the other was won over by the devil. Adam prayed for his son and turned to mundane matters for he had to toil for his sustenance. At the same time he was a prophet advising his children and grandchildren, telling them about Allah and calling them to believe in Him. He told them about Iblis and warned them by recounting his own experience with the devil and of how the devil had tempted Cain to kill his brother.


Years and years passed, Adam grew old and his children spread all over the earth. Muhammad Ibn Ishaq related that when Adam’s death drew near, he appointed his son Seth to be his successor and taught him the hours of the day and night along with their appropriate acts of worship. He also foretold to him the floor that would come.

Abu Dhar narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Allah sent down 104 psalms, of which 50 were sent down to Seth.”

Abdullah Ibn Al Iman Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrated that Ubai Ibn Kab said: “When Adam’s death was near, he said to his children: “O my children, indeed I feel an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.”

So they went away searching for what Adam had requested. They met with the angels, who had with them his shroud and what he was to be embalmed with. They said to them: “O Children of Adam, what are you searching for? What do you want? Where are you going?”

They said: “Our father is sick and has an appetite for the fruits of Paradise.”

the angels said to them: “Go back, for your father is going to meet his end soon.”

So they returned (with the angels) and when Eve saw them she recognized them. She tried to hide herself behind Adam. He said to her. “Leave me alone. I came before you; do not go between me and the angels of my Lord.’ So they took his soul, embalmed and wrapped him, dug the grave and laid him in it. They prayed on him and put him in his grave, saying: ‘O Children of Adam, this is your tradition at the time of death.””

Before his death Adam reassured his children that Allah would not leave man alone on the earth, but would sent His prophets to guide them. the prophets would have different names, traits and miracles, but they would be united in one thing; the call to worship Allah alone. This was Adam’s bequest to his children. Adam finished speaking and closed his eyes. Then the angels entered his room and surrounded him. When he recognized the Angel of Death among them, his heart smiled peacefully.

After Adam’s death, his soth Seth (Shiith) took over the responsibilities of prophethood, according to a hadith narrated by Abu Dhar. Abu Dhar narrated that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said: “Allah sent down one hundred and four psalms, of which fifty were sent down to Seth.” (Sahih al Bukhari) When the time of his death came Seth’s son Anoush succeeded him. He in turn, was succeeded by his son Qinan, claim that Mahlabeel was the King of the Seven Regions, that he was the first one to cut down trees to build cities and large forts and that he built the cities of Babylonia. He reigned for a period of forty years. When he died his duties were taken ov er by his son Yard, who on his death, bequeathed them to his son Khonoukh, who is Idris (pbuh) according to the majority of the scholars.

prophet Adam 5

They left Paradise and descended upon the earth. Adam was sad and Eve was crying. Allah accepted their repentance because it was sincere and He told them that the earth would be their realm and origin where they would live and die and whence they would come on the Day of Judgment.

 

Prophet Adam (pbuh) Part 2

 

Allah the Almighty recounted this third lesson Adam learned in Paradise:Indeed We made a covenant with Adam before, but he forgot, and We found on his part no firm will power. Remember when We said to the angels “Prostrate yourselves to Adam.” They prostrated (all) except Iblis, who refused. then We said: “O Adam! verily, this is an enemy to you and to your wife. so let him not get you both out of Paradise, so that you be distressed in misery. Verily, you have (a promise from Us) that you will never be hungry therein nor naked. And you will suffer not from thrist therein nor from the sun’s heat.”

then Satan whispered to him, saying “O Adam! Shall I lead you to the Tree of Eternity and to a kingdom that will never waste away?” Then they both ate of that tree, and so their private parts appeared to them, and they began to stick on themselves the leaves from Paradise for their covering. Thus did Adam disobey his Lord, so he went astray. Then his Lord chose him, and turned to him with forgiveness and gave him guidance.

Allah said: “Get you down (upon the earth), both of you, together from Paradise, some of you are an enemy to some others. THen if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery. But whosoever turns away from My Reminder (neither believes in this Quran nor acts on its orders etc). Verily, for him is a life of hardship and We shall raise him up blind on the Day of Resurrection.”

He will say: “O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight before.” Allah will said: “like this, Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc). came unto you, but you disregarded them (you left them, did not think deeply in them, and you turned away from them), and so this Day, you will be neglected in the Hellfire, away from Allah’s Mercy.)”

And thus do We requite him who transgresses beyond bounds (commits the great sins and disobeys his Lord (allah) and believes not in His Messengers, and His revealed Books, like this Quran etc), and believes not in the Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc). of his Lord, and the torment of the Hereafter is far more severe and more lasting.

(Ch 20:115-127)

Some people believe that the reason why mankind does not dwell in Paradise is that Adam was disobedient and that if it had not been for this sin, we could have been there all along. These are naive fictions because when Allah wanted to create Adam, He said to the angels, “I shall make a vicegerent on the earth.” He did not say, “I shall make a vicegerent in Paradise.”

Adam’s descent on earth, then, was not due to degradation but rather it was dignified descent. Allah knew that Adam and Eve would eat of the tree and descend to earth. He knew that Satan would rape their innocence. That experience was essential for their life on earth; it was a cornerstone of their vicegerency. It was meant to teach Adam, Eve, and their progeny that it was Satan who had caused them to be expelled from Paradise and that the road to Paradise can only be reached by obedience to Allah and enmity to Satan.

Could it be said that Adam and the rest of mankind were predestined to sin and to be expelled from Paradise and sent to the earth? In fact, this fiction is as naive as the first one.

Adam complete free will, and he bore the consequences of his deed. He disobeyed by eating of the forbidden tree, so Allah dismissed him from Paradise. His disobedience does not negate his freedom. On the contrary it is a consequence of it.

The truth of the matter is that Allah knew what was going to happen, as He always know the outcome of events before they take place. However Allah does not force things to happen. He grants free will to His human creatures. On that He bases His supreme wisdom in populating the earth, establishing the vicegerents, and so on.

Adam understood his 3rd lesson. He knew now in a practical way that Iblis was his enemy, the cause of his losing the blessing of living in Paradise, and the cause of his distress. Adam also understood that Allah punishes disobedience and that the way of Paradise has to be through submission to the will of Allah. And he learned from Allah Almighty to ask for forgiveness.

Allah accepted Adam’s repentance and forgave him. He then sent him to the earth as His first messenger.

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger (PBUH) said: “Adam and Moses argued with each other. Moses said to Adam: ‘Your sin expelled you from Paradise.’ Adam said: ‘ You are Moses whom Allah selected as His messenger and as the one to whom He spoke directly. Yet you blame me for a thing which had already been written in my fate before my Creation?” Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said twice, “So Adam outclassed Moses.” (Sahih Bukhari).

Umar Ibn Al Khattab also narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Moses (PBUH) said: ‘My Lord! May I see Adam who removed us and himself from the Paradise?” so Allah made him see Adam and he said to him: “Are you Adam?” Adam said: “yes.” And he said “Were you the one in Whom Allah breathed His spirit and before whom He bowed His angels and to whom He taught the names of all things?” Adam answered: “yes.” so Moses said: “What made you remove us and yourself from Paradise.?”

Adam said: “Who are you?” Moses said: I am Moses.” Adam said: “So you are Moses the prophet of the Children of Israel. Were you the one Allah spoke to directly?” Moses answered “yes.” Adam said: “Why do you blame me for a matter which Allah had predestined?” So Allah’s Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said twice. “Adam outclassed Moses.” (Sahih al Bukhari).

Prophet Adamn 4

After this lesson about freedom Adam learned another lesson, one about knowledge. Adam realized that Iblis was the symbol of evil in the universe and that the angels were the symbol of good. However he did not yet know anything about himself. Then Allah made him perceive his true identity and the reason for his creation, and the secret of his glorification.

Allah the Exalted said: He taught Adam all the names of everything. (Ch 2:31 Quran).

Almighty Allah granted Adam the power to know the natures of all things and to summarize them by names; that is a bird, that is a star, that is a tree, etc Allah implanted in Adam an insatiable need for and love of knowledge and a desire to bequeath knowledge to his children. This was the reason for his creation and the secret of his glorification.

After Adam had learned the names of all things, along with their properties and uses, Allah presented them to the angels and said: “Tell Me the names of these if you are truthful.” (Ch 2:31 Quran) the angels admitted their inability: “Glory be to You, we have knowledge except what You have taught us. Verily it is You the All Knower, the All Wise.” (Ch 2:32)

Allah Almighty then turned to Adam: “O Adam! Inform them of their names, ” and when he had informed them of their names, He said: “Did I not tell you that I know the unseen in the heavens and the earth, and I know what you reveal and what you have been hiding?” (Ch 2:33).

Allah wanted the angels to know that He knew of their astonishment when He had told them about the creation of Adam and that He also knew of their confusion which they had not revealed, as well as what Iblis had concealed of his disobedience and ingratitude.

The angels realized that Adam was the creature who knew what they did not know and that his capacity to learn was his noblest quality. His knowledge included knowledge of the Creator which we call faith or Islam, as well as the knowledge he would need to inhabit and master the earth. All kinds of worldly knowledge which are included in this.

Adam knew the names of everything. Sometimes he talked to the angels, but they were preoccupied with worshipping Almighty Allah. Therefore Adam, felt lonely. One day he slept and when he awoke he found near his head, a woman gazing at his face with beautiful tender eyes.

The angels asked him her name He replied: “Eve (Hawa).” (means living things). They asked: “Why did you call her Eve?” Adam said: “Because she was created of me and I am a living being.”

Ibn Abbas and a group of companions of the Prophet (PBUH) narrated that when Iblis was sent out of Paradise and Adam was accommodated therein, Adam was alone in Paradise and did not have a partner from whom he could get tranquility. He slept for some time and when he woke up, he saw a woman whom Allah had created from his ribs. So he asked her, “Who are you? She replied, “A woman” He asked: “Why have you been created?” She said :”So that you could find tranquility in me.” The angels, trying to find out the extent of his knowledge, asked him: “What is her name O Adam?” He replied, “Eve” They asked “Why was she so named?” He replied, ” Because she was created from something living.”

Muhammad Ibn Ishaaq and Ibn Abbas related that Eve was created from the shortest left rib of Adam while he was sleeping and after awhile she was clothed with flesh. that is why Allah the Exalted said: O Mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam) and from Him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. (Ch 4:1) Allah also said: It is he Who has created you from a single person (Adam) and then He created from him his wife (Eve), in order that he might enjoy the pleasure of living with her. (Ch 7:189).

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “O Muslims! I advise you to be gentle with women, for they are created from a rib, and the most crooked portion of the rib is its upper part. If you try to straighten it, it will break and if you leave it, it will remain crooked, so I urge you to take care of the women.” (Sahih Bukhari).

 

Allah commanded Adam to dwell in Paradise: “O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the Paradise and eat both of you freely with pleasure and delight of things therein as wherever you will, but come not near this tree or you both will be of the Zalimeen (wrong doers).(Ch 2:35)

The location of this Paradise is unknown to us. The Quran did not reveal it, and the commentators had five different opinions. Some said that it was the paradise of our refuge and that its place was heaven. Others regreted that statement because if it was the paradise of refuge Iblis would have been forbidden admission and disobedience would have been forbidden as well. Still others said that it was another paradise that was created by Allah for Adam and Eve. A fourth group said it was a paradise on the earth located in a high place. Another group of commentators accept what was in the Quran without questioning where this paradise was located. We agree with this last opinion as the lesson we learn from its location is immaterial compared to the lesson we leafrom the events that took place there.

Adam and eve were admitted to Paradise and there they lived the dream of all human beings. Allah permitted them to approach and enjoy everything except one tree, that might have been the Tree of Pain or the Tree of Knowledge. Allah forbade them they were give abode in Paradise. “But come not near this tree or you both will be of the wrong doers.” (Ch 2:35)

Adam and Eve understood that they were forbidden to eat the fruit of that tree. Adam was however a human being and man tends to forget. His heart changes and his will weakens. Iblis summoned all the envy within him and took advantage of Adam’s humanity to exploit him. He started to whisper to him day after day, coaxing him: “Shall I guide you to thTree of Immortality and the Eternal Kingdom?” He said to them: “Your Lord did not forbid you this tree save you should become angels or become of the immortals.” He (Satan) swore by Allah to them both saying: “Verily I am one of the sincere well wishers for you both.” (Ch 7:20-21)

Adam asked himself: “What will happen if I eat from this tree? It might truly be the Tree of Immortality.” His dream was to live forever in the pure innocence of Paradise.”

Years went by, and Adam and Eve were preoccupied with thoughts of that tree. Then one day they decided to eat of its fruit. They forgot that Allah had warned them not to approach it and that Iblis was their sworn enemy. Adam stretched out his hand, picked one of the fruits and offered it to Eve. They both ate of the forbidden tree.

Allah Almighty told us: “So he (Satan) misled them with deception.” (Ch 7:22) Allah said: “Thus did Adam disobey his Lord so he went astray.” (Ch 20:121).

According to the old Testament, Eve was tempted by the serpent to eat of the forbidden tree. She ate because of the words of the serpent and fed Adam some of it. At that moment, their eyes were opened to the fact that they were naked, and they took the leaves of the fig tree to cover themselves. Wahb Ibn Munabah said that their clothing (before their sin) was made of light on the private parts of both of them.

This story in the Old Testament is a falsification and deception. Allah the Almighty revealed: O Children of Adam! Let not Satan deceive you, as he got your parents (Adam and Eve) out of Paradise stripping them of their rainments; to show them their private parts. Verily he and Qabiluhu (his soldiers from the jinn or his tribe) see you from where you cannot see them. Verily, We made the devils (protectors and helpers) for those who believe not.” (Ch 7:27)

Adam had hardly finished eating when he felt his heart contract, and he as filled with pain, sadness and shame. The surrounding atmosphere had changed and the internal music had stopped. He discovered that he and his wife were naked, so they both started cutting tree leaves with which to cover themselves.

Allah the Almighty addressed him: “Did I not forbid you that tree and tell you: Verily Satan is an open enemy unto you?” They said: “Our Lord! We have wronged ourselves. If You forgive us not, and bestow not upon us Your Mercy, we shall certainly be of the losers.” Allah said; “Get down, one of you an enemy to the other (Adam, Eve, and Satan etc). On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, for a time.” He said: “Therein you shall live and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).” (7:22-25).

Again there are old stories about these events. Al Hafez Ibn Asaker narrated that Allah commanded two angels to remove Adam from His holy proximity. So Gabriel stripped him of the crown on his head, and Michael took the diadem from his forehead. Adam thought that his punishment had been hastened and bowed down crying; “Forgiveness! Forgiveness!” so Allah asked: “Are you running away from Me?” Adam replied, “No, my Lord, but I am shy of You.”

Abdul Rahman Ibn Amru AL Awza iy said that Adam spent 100 years in Paradise. In another narration it was said he spent 60 years. Ibn Asaker reported that Adam wept for 60 years for his loss of Paradise and 70 years for his mistake, and he wept for another 70 years when his son was killed.

prophet Adam 3

Another version of the story relates that Allah took a handful of the dust of the earth and mixed into it the colors, white, black, yellow and red. That is the reason why men are born different colors. When Allah mixed the dust with water, it turned into potter’s clay that makes a sound. It was fermented and had a smell. Iblis passed by, wondering what was going to be made of that clay. From the clay Allah created Adam. he molded his form with His own hands and blew His spirit into him. Adam’s body quivered as life was imbued into it. Verily His Command, when He intends a thing is only that He says to it, “BE!” and it is! (Ch 37:82 Quran).

Allah the Almighty declared: Verily the likeness of Jesus, in Allah’s Sight is the likeness of Adam, He created him from the dust then He said to him. “Be!” –and he was. (Ch 3:59 Quran).

Adam opened his eyes and saw all the angels prostrating before him except one being who was standing at a distance Adam did not know what kind of creature it was that did not prostrate before him nor did he know its name. Iblis was standing with the angels so as to be included in the command given to them but he was not one of them. He was a jinn, and as such he was supposed to be inferior to the angels. What is clear is that this prostration was to show respect and did not mean that the angels were worshipping Adam. Prostrating in worship is done only for ALLAH.

Almighty Allah recounted the story of Iblis’s refusal to prostate before Adam: Remember when your Lord said to the angels, “I am going to create a man (Adam) from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud. So when I have fashioned him completely and breathed into him (Adam) the soul which I created for him then fall you down prostrating yourselves unto him.” SO the angels prostrated themselves all of them together, except Iblis, he refused to be among the prostrators. Allah said: “O Iblis! What is your reason for not being among the prostrators?” Iblis said: “I am not the one to prostrate myself to a human being, whom You created from sounding clay of altered black smooth mud.” Allah said: “Then get out from here for verily you are Rajim (an outcast or cursed one). Verily the curse shall be upon you till Day of Recompense (Day of Resurrection). (Ch 15:28-35 Quran).

In another surah Almighty Allah recounted it thus: Surely We created you (your father Adam) and then gave you shape (the noble shape of a human being), then We told the angels, “Prostrate to Adam and they prostrated except Iblis he refused to be of those who prostrate.

Allah said: “What prevented you Iblis that you did not prostrate when I commanded you?” Iblis said: “I am better than him (Adam), You created me from fire and him You created from clay.” Allah said: “Get down from this Paradise, it is not for you to be arrogant here. Get out, for you are of those humiliated and disgraced.” Iblis said: Allow me respite till the Day of Resurrection).” Allah said: “You are of those allowed respite.”(Ch 7:11-15 Quran).

Ibn Jarir reported that Muhammad Ibn sirin said that the first one to reach a conclusion by reasoning was Iblis and that the sun and moon were not worshiped except through this method.

This means that Iblis tried to compare himself to Adam. He believed that he was more honorable than Adam. Therefore he abstained from prostrating even though Allah had commanded him to do so, just as He had commanded the angels. If an analogy is made we see that Iblis is vain. For indeed clay is better than fire because in it can be found the qualities of calmness, clemency, perseverance and growth; whereas in fire can be found heedlessness, insignificance, haste, and incineration.

Iblis tried in vain to justify his refusal: “Shall I prostrate to one whom You created from clay?” Iblis said: “See? those whom You have honored above me, if You give me respite (keep me alive) to the Day of Resurrection, I will surely seize and mislead his offspring (by sending them astray) all but a few!” (Ch 17:62 Quran).

Adam was following what was happening around him and had feelings of love, awe, and astonishment. Deep love of Allah,Who had created and glorified him and Who had made His angels prostrate before him. Awe of the Creator’s wrath when He excluded Iblis from His mercy. Adam was surprised by this creature, Iblis who abhorred hiwithout even knowing him and who imagined himself better than Adam without having proved that he was worthier. What a strange creature Iblis was, and how strange was his excuse for not prostrating!

He imagined that fire is better than clay, but how did he get such an idea? Such knowledge is exclusive to Allah Who fire and clay and Who knows which is the better of the two.

From the dialogue Adam realized that Iblis was a creature characterized by cunning and ingratitude. He then knew that Iblis was his eternal enemy. He was greatly astonished at Iblis’s audacity and Allah’s tolerance. Immediately after his creation Adam witnessed the large amount of freedom that Allah gives to His commissioned creatures.

Allah knew that Iblis was not going to obey Him in prostrating before Adam. Allah could have totally annihilated him or turned him into a handful of dust or stifled the refusal in his mouth. Yet, Allah gives His commissioned creatures absolute freedom even to the extent that they can refuse Allah the Almighty’s commands. He grants them the freedom of denial, disobedience, and even disagreement with Him.

His kingdom will not diminish if the disbelievers do not believe in Him nor will it be extended if many people believe in Him. On the contrary, the disbelievers will lose, and the believers will gain but Allah is above all of that.

There were many traditions about Iblis at the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH). Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas and a group of the companions of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said that Iblis had been the head of the angels in the worldly heavens. Ibn Abbas said in one narration that his name had been Azazil and in another narration he said it had been Al Harith. Ibn Abbas also said that Iblis was a jinn and that they had once been the keepers of Paradise, with Iblis the most honorable and the most learned and the most pious of them. Another tradition says that he had been one of the famous four possessors of wings (angels), before Allah transformed him into the accursed Satan.

Allah Almighty recounts Iblis’s disobedience in another surah: Remember when your Lord said to the angels: “Truly I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” So the angels prostrated themselves all of them; except Iblis, he was proud and was one of the disbelievers.

Allah said: “The truth is, and the truth I say, that I will fill Hell with you and those of them (mankind) that follow you together.”(Ch 38:71-85 Quran).

Prophet Adam 2

We imagine when Allah the Almighty decided to create Adam: He addressed His angels and told them to prostrate before him. He did not mean to ask their opinion or take their advice, for He is above that. Allah the Exalted told them that He was going to create a vicegerent on the earth who would have children and grandchildren who would corrupt the earth and shed each other’s blood. That is why the angels said to Allah the Almighty: “Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood!” (Chapter 2:30 Quran).

There are old traditions about the angels before the creation of Adam. According to Ibn Qatadah, it was said that the angels were informed about the creation of Adam and his progency by the jinn who lived before Adam. Abdullah Ibn Umar said that the jinn had existed for about 2000 years before Adam and then shed blood. Therefore Allah sent on them an army of angels that drove them out to the depths of the seas. Ibn Abi Hatim narrated from Ali jafar Al Baqer that the angels were informed that man would cause wickedness and shed blood on earth. It was also said that they knew that no one would be created on earth who would not be wicked and shed blood.

Whether or not these traditions are correct, the angels did understand that Allah would create a vicegerent on earth. Allah the Almighty announced that HE was going to create a human being out of clay, that HE would mold him and blow His spirit into him and then the angels should prostrate before him.

Abi Musa al Sha’arai narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) said: “Allah created Adam from a handful of dust taken from different lands, so the children of Adam have been created according to the composition of the land. Therefore from mankind we have white, red, black and yellow ones; we have good and evil, ease and sorrow, and what comes in between them.” (Sahih al Bukhari).

Ibn Masud and other companions of the Prophet (PBUH) said that Allah the Almighty sent Gabriel onto the earth to said that Allah the Almighty sent Gabriel onto the earth to get Him clay therefrom. The earth said: “I seek refuge in Allah from your decreasing my quantity or disfiguring me.” So Gabriel returned and did not take anything. He said: “My Lord, the land sought refuge in You and it granted.”

So Allah sent Michael for the same purpose, and the land sought refuge with Allah and it was granted. So he went back and said to Allah what Gabriel has said before him.

Then Allah sent the Angel of Death, and the land sought refuge in Allah, the angel said: “I also seek refuge with Allah from returning without carrying out His command.” So he took clay from the face of the earth and mixed it. He did not take from one particular place, but rather he took white, red, and black clay from different places.

The Angel of Death ascended with it, Allah soaked the clay till it became sticky. Then Allah said to the angels: “Truly, I am going to create man from clay. So when I have fashioned him and breathed into him (his) soul created by Me, then you fall down prostrate to him.” (Chapter 38:71-72 Quran).

So Allah shaped Adam into a human being, but he remaineda figure of clay for 40 years. The angels went past him. They were seized with fear by what they saw, and Iblis felt fear most. He used to pass by the figure of Adam, buffeting it, which would make a sound like pottery. Allah told us: “He created man (Adam) from sounding clay like the clay of pottery.” (Chapter 55:Quran).

When the time drew near to breathe the spirit into Adam, as Allah decreed, He commanded the angels: “When I breathe My spirit into him prostrate before him.” Allah breathed His spirit into Adam and when it reached his head Adam sneezed. The angels said: “Say all praise belongs to Allah.” Adam repeated: “All praise belongs to Allah.” Allah said to him: “Your Lord has granted you mercy.” When the spirit reached his eyes, Adam looked at the fruits of Paradise. When it reached his abdomen Adam felt an appetite for food. He jumped hurriedly before the spirit could reach his legs, so that he could eat from the fruits of Paradise. Allah, therefore, said: “Man is created of haste.” (Chapter 21:37 Quran). And then: The angels prostrated themselves all of them together. Except Iblis, he refused to be among the prostrators. (Ch 15:31-32 Quran).

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Allah created Adam from dust after He mixed the clay and left him for some time until it became sticky mud, after which Allah shaped him. After that Allah left him till it became like potter’s clay. Iblis used to go past him saying ‘You have been created for a great purpose.’ After that Allah breathed His spirit into him. The first thing into which the spirit passed was his eye and then his nose. He sneezed. Allah said: “May your Lord have mercy upon you, O Adam! Go to those angels and see what they would say.’ So Adam went and greeted them. they replied saying: “Peace be upon you and the mercy and blessings of Allah.” Allah said: “O Adam! This is your greeting and that of your offspring.” (Sahih al Bukhari).

Allah the Almighty revealed: Remember when your Lord brought forth from the children of Adam, from their loins, their seed (or from Adam’s loin his offspring) and made them testify as to themselves saying: “Am I not your Lord?” They said: “Yes! We testify.” lest you should say on the Day of Resurrection. “Verily we have been unaware of this.” Or lest you should say: “It was only our father aforetime who took others pas partners in worship along with Allah and we were merely their descendants after them; will you then destroy us because of the deeds of men who practiced al batil (polytheism) and committing crimes and sins, invoking and worshipping others besides Allah?”

Thus do We explain the Ayah (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations etc) in detail so that they may turn unto the truth.(Ch 7:172-174 Quran).

Adam’s progeny declared: “Our Lord, we bear witness that You are our Lord; we have no other Lord but Allah. Allah raised their father Adam, and he looked at them and saw those of them who were rich and those who were poor, and those who had good forms and those who did not. Adam said: “O Allah! I wish You to make Your servants equal.” Allah replied “I love being thanked.” Adam saw among the prophets like lamps among his progeny.

Almighty Allah declared: Remember when We took from the Prophets their covenant, and from you (o Muhammad), and from Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus son of Mary. We took from them a strong covenant. (Ch 33:7 Quran).

In another verse Allah the Exalted commanded: “So set you (O Muhammad) your face towards the religion of pure Islamic Monotheism Hanifan (worship none but Allah Alone) Allah’s Fitrah (Allah’s Islamic Monotheism), with which He has created mankind. No change let there be in khalqillah (the Religion of Allah–Islamic Monotheism), that is the straight religion, but most men know not.” (Ch 30:30 Quran).