The 99 Names Of ALLAH الأسماء الله الحسنى

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

ولله الأسماء الحسنى فادعوه بها

1Allah ( Ang tunay na Diyos) 2-Ar-Rahmaan (Ang Maawain) 3-Ar-Raheem (Ang Mahabagin) 4-Ar-Rauof (Ang Tigib ng Kabaitan) 5-Al-Ghaniy (Ang Mayaman) 6-Al-Kareem (Ang Mapag Bigay) 7-Al-Akram (Ang Pinaka Mapag Bigay) 8-Al-Wahhab ( Ang Mapagka loob) 9-Al-Jawwad (Ang Mapag Mabuting loob) 10-Al-Waasi’ (Ang Malawak) 11-Al-Maalik (Ang Nag Mamay Ari) 12-Al-Malik (Ang Hari) 13-Al-Maleek (Ang Kahari-Harian) 14-Al-Quddoos (Ang Banal) 15-Assalaam (Ang Sakdal) 16-Al-Mu’min (Tagapag patiwasay) 17-Al-Muhaymin (Ang Taga Pag Bantay) 18-Al-Azeez (Ang Matatag) 19-Al-Jabbar (Ang Palasupil) 20-Al-Mutakabbir (Ang Nakapag Mamalaki) 21-Al-Kabeer (Ang Malaki) 22-Al-Muta aal (Ang Makapag Mamataas) 23-Ar-Rabb (Ang Pangino-on) 24-Al-Adheem (Ang Sukdulan) 25-Al-Qaadir (Ang Makapangyarihan) 26-Al-Qadeer (Ang Nakapangyayari 27-Al-Muqtadir (Ang Nakakaya) 28-Al-Khallaaq (Ang Palalikha) 29-Al-Khaaliq ( Ang Tagapag likha) 30-Al-Baari’ (Ang Maykapal) 31-Al-Musawwir (Ang Tagapag-anyo) 32-Al-Awwal (Ang Kaunaunahan) 33-Al-Aakhir (Ang Kahuli-hulihan) 34-Adh-Dhaahir (Ang Nangingibabaw) 35-Al-Baatin (Ang Nakaaarok) 36-As-Samee’ (Ang Nakakarinig) 37-Al-Baseer (Ang Nakakikita) 38-Al-Afuw’ (Ang Mapagpaumanhin) 39-Al-Ghafoor (Ang Mapagpatawad) 40-Al-Ghaffaar (Ang Tagapagpatawad) 41-As-Sattar (Ang Mapagtakip) 42-Al-Haleem (Ang Matimpiin) 43-Al-Lateef (Ang Nakakatatalos o Ang Mabait) 44-Al-Witr (Ang Bugtong) 45-Al-Jameel (Ang Maganda) 46-Al-Aliy (Ang Mataas) 47-Al-A’laa (Ang Kataas-taasan 48-Al-Waahid (Ang Nag-iisa) 49-Al-Ahad (Ang Iisa) 50-As-Samad (Ang Dulugan) 51-As-Sayyid (Ang Poon) 52-Al-Qahir (Ang Tagalupig) 53-Al-Qahhaar (Ang Palalupig) 54-Al-Haqq (Ang Totoo) 55-Al-Mubeen (Ang Naglilinaw) 56-Al-Qawiy (Ang Malakas) 57-Al-Mateen (Ang Matibay) 58-Al-Hayiy (Ang May-hiya) 59-Al-Hayy (Ang Buhay) 60-Al-Qayyoom (Ang Tagapagpanatili) 61-Ash-Shaakir (Ang Nagpapasalamat) 62-Ash-Shakoor (Ang Mapagpasalamat) 63-Al-Fattaah (Ang Tagapagpasya) 64-Al-Aleem (Ang Maalam) 65-Al-Hakeem (Ang Marunong) 66-Al-Khabeer (Ang Nakababatid) 67-At-Tawwaab (Ang Palatanggap ng pag sisi) 68-Al-Qareeb (Ang Malapit) 69-Al-Muheeb (Ang Tumutugon) 70-Al-Wadood (Ang Mapagmahal) 71-Al-Waliy (Ang katangkilik) 72-Al-Hameed (Ang Kapuri-puri) 73-Al-Mawlaa (Ang Tagatangkilik) 74-An-Naseer (Ang Tagaadya) 75-Al-Hafeedh (Ang Mapag-ingat) 76-Al-Majeed (Ang Maringal) 77-Ash-Shaheed (Ang Saksi) 78-Al-Muqaddim (Ang Tagapagpauna) 79-Al-Muakhkhir (Ang Tagapagpahuli) 80-Al-Musa’ir (Ang Tagapagpaliyab) 81-Al-Qaabid (Ang Tagapagpagipit) 82-Al-Baasit (Ang Tagapagpaluwag) 83-Al-Mu’tiy (Ang Tagapagbigay) 84-ad-Dayyaan (Ang Palagantimpala) 85-Al-Mannaan (Ang Mapagbiyaya) 86-Ar-Raaziq (Ang Tagapagtustos) 87-Ar-Razzaaq (Ang Palatustos) 88-Al-Wakeel (Ang Pinagkakatiwalaan) 89-Ar-Raqeeb (Ang Mapagmasid) 90-Al-Muhsin (Ang Mapagmagandang loob) 91-Al-Haseeb (Ang Tagapagtuos) 92-Ash-Shaafiy (Ang Tagapagpagaling) 93-Ar-Rafeeq (Ang Magiliw) 94-AlMuqeet (Ang Tagakandili) 95-At-Tayyib (Ang Kaaya-aya) 96-Al-Hakam (Ang Hukum) 97-Al-Barr (Ang Mabuti) 98-As-Subbooh (Ang Maluwalhati (99-Al-Waarith (Ang Tagapagpamana) 100-Al-Ilaah (Ang Diyos)

Hijab الحجاب


In the name of Allah the most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

Literally, Hijab means “a veil”, “curtain”, “partition” or “separation.” In a meta- physical sense, Hijab means illusion or refers to the illusory aspect of creation. Another, and most popular and common meaning of Hijab today, is the veil in dressing for women. It refers to a certain standard of modest dress for women. “The usual definition of modest dress according to the legal systems does not actually require covering everything except the face and hands in public; this, at least, is the practice which originated in the Middle East.” 1

While Hijab means “cover”, “drape”, or “partition”; the word KHIMAR means veil covering the head and the word LITHAM or NIQAB means veil covering lower face up to the eyes. The general term hijab in the present day world refers to the covering of the face by women. In the Indian sub-continent it is called purdah and in Iran it called chador for the tent like black cloak and veil worn by many women in Iran and other Middle Eastern countries. By socioeconomic necessity, the obligation to observe the hijab now often applies more to female “garments” (worn outside the house) than it does to the ancient paradigmatic feature of women’s domestic “seclusion.” In the contemporary normative Islamic language of Egypt and elsewhere, the hijab now denotes more a “way of dressing” than a “way of life,” a (portable) “veil” rather than a fixed “domestic screen/seclusion.” In Egypt and America hijab presently denotes the basic head covering (“veil”) worn by fundamentalist/Islamist women as part of Islamic dress (zayy islami, or zayy shar’i); this hijab-head covering conceals hair and neck of the wearer.

The Qur’an advises the wives of the Prophet (SAS) to go veiled (33: 59).

In Surah 24: 31(Ayah), the Qur’an advises women to cover their “adornments” from strangers outside the family. In the traditional and modern Arab societies women at home dress quite differently compared to what they wear in the streets. In this verse of the Qur’an, it refers to the institution of a new public modesty rather than veiling the face.

…When the pre-Islamic Arabs went to battle, Arab women seeing the men off to war would bare their breasts to encourage them to fight; or they would do so at the battle itself, as in the case of the Meccan women led by Hind at the Battle of Uhud. This changed with Islam, but the general use of the veil to cover the face did not appear until ‘Abbasid times. Nor was it entirely unknown in Europe, for the veil permitted women the freedom of anonymity. None of the legal systems actually prescribe that women must wear a veil, although they do prescribe covering the body in public, up to the neck, the ankles, and below the elbow. In many Muslim societies, for example in traditional South East Asia, or in Bedouin lands a face veil for women is either rare or non-existent; paradoxically, modern fundamentalism is introducing it. In others, the veil may be used at one time and European dress another. While modesty is a religious prescription, the wearing of a veil is not a religious requirement of Islam, but a matter of cultural milieu.2

“The Middle Eastern norm for relationships between the sexes is by no means the only one possible for Islamic societies everywhere, nor is it appropriate for all cultures. It does not exhaust the possibilities allowed within the framework of the Qur’an and Sunnah, and is neither feasible nor desirable as a model for Europe or North America. European societies possess perfectly adequate models for marriage, the family, and relations between the sexes which are by no means out of harmony with the Qur’an and the Sunnah. This is borne out by the fact that within certain broad limits Islamic societies themselves differ enormously in this respect.” 3

The Qur’an lays down the principle of the law of modesty. In Surah 24: An-Nur: 30 and 31, modesty is enjoined both upon Muslim men and Muslim women 4:

Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty: that will make for Greater purity for them: And God is Well-acquainted with all that they do. And say to the believing women That they should lower their gaze And guard their modesty: and they should not display beauty and ornaments expect what (must ordinarily) appear thereof; that They must draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty except to their husbands, their fathers, their husband’s fathers, their sons, their husband’s sons, or their women, or their slaves whom their right hands possess, or male servants free of physical needs, or small children who have no sense of the shame of sex; and that they should not strike their feet in order to draw attention to their ornaments.

The following conclusions may be made on the basis of the above-cited verses5:

1. The Qur’anic injunctions enjoining the believers to lower their gaze and behave modestly applies to both Muslim men and women and not Muslim women alone.

2. Muslim women are enjoined to “draw their veils over their bosoms and not display their beauty” except in the presence of their husbands, other women, children, eunuchs and those men who are so closely related to them that they are not allowed to marry them. Although a self-conscious exhibition of one’s “zeenat” (which means “that which appears to be beautiful” or “that which is used for embellishment or adornment”) is forbidden, the Qur’an makes it clear that what a woman wears ordinarily is permissible. Another interpretation of this part of the passage is that if the display of “zeenat” is unintentional or accidental, it does not violate the law of modesty.

3. Although Muslim women may wear ornaments they should not walk in a manner intended to cause their ornaments to jingle and thus attract the attention of others.

The respected scholar, Muhammad Asad6, commenting on Qur’an 24:31 says ” The noun khimar (of which khumur is plural) denotes the head-covering customarily used by Arabian women before and after the advent of Islam. According to most of the classical commentators, it was worn in pre-Islamic times more or less as an ornament and was let down loosely over the wearer’s back; and since, in accordance with the fashion prevalent at the time, the upper part of a woman’s tunic had a wide opening in the front, her breasts were left bare. Hence, the injunction to cover the bosom by means of a khimar (a term so familiar to the contemporaries of the Prophet) does not necessarily relate to the use of a khimar as such but is, rather, meant to make it clear that a woman’s breasts are not included in the concept of “what may decently be apparent” of her body and should not, therefore, be displayed.

Ang Hijab

The Qur’anic view of the ideal society is that the social and moral values have to be upheld by both Muslim men and women and there is justice for all, i.e. between man and man and between man and woman. The Qur’anic legislation regarding women is to protect them from inequities and vicious practices (such as female infanticide, unlimited polygamy or concubinage, etc.) which prevailed in the pre-Islamic Arabia. However the main purpose is to establish to equality of man and woman in the sight of God who created them both in like manner, from like substance, and gave to both the equal right to develop their own potentialities. To become a free, rational person is then the goal set for all human beings. Thus the Qur’an liberated the women from the indignity of being sex-objects into persons. In turn the Qur’an asks the women that they should behave with dignity and decorum befitting a secure, Self-respecting and self-aware human being rather than an insecure female who felt that her survival depends on her ability to attract or cajole those men who were interested not in her personality but only in her sexuality.

One of the verses in the Qur’an protects a woman’s fundamental rights. Aya 59 from Sura al-Ahzab reads:

O Prophet! Tell Thy wives And daughters, and the Believing women, that They should cast their Outer garments over Their Persons (when outside): That they should be known (As such) and not Molested.

Although this verse is directed in the first place to the Prophet’s “wives and daughters”, there is a reference also to “the believing women” hence it is generally understood by Muslim societies as applying to all Muslim women. According to the Qur’an the reason why Muslim women should wear an outer garment when going out of their houses is so that they may be recognized as “believing” Muslim women and differentiated from street-walkers for whom sexual harassment is an occupational hazard. The purpose of this verse was not to confine women to their houses but to make it safe for them to go about their daily business without attracting unwholesome attention. By wearing the outer garment a “believing” Muslim woman could be distinguished from the others. In societies where there is no danger of “believing” Muslim being confused with the others or in which “the outer garment” is unable to function as a mark of identification for “believing” Muslim women, the mere wearing of “the outer garment” would not fulfill the true objective of the Qur’anic decree. For example that older Muslim women who are “past the prospect of marriage” are not required to wear “the outer garment”. Surah 24: An-Nur, Aya 60 reads:

Such elderly women are past the prospect of marriage,– There is no blame on them, if they lay aside their (outer) garments, provided they make not wanton display of their beauty; but it is best for them to be modest: and Allah is One who sees and knows all things.

Women who on account of their advanced age are not likely to be regarded as sex-objects are allowed to discard “the outer garment” but there is no relaxation as far as the essential Qur’anic principle of modest behavior is concerned. Reflection on the above-cited verse shows that “the outer garment” is not required by the Qur’an as a necessary statement of modesty since it recognizes the possibility women may continue to be modest even when they have discarded “the outer garment.”

The Qur’an itself does not suggest either that women should be veiled or they should be kept apart from the world of men. On the contrary, the Qur’an is insistent on the full participation of women in society and in the religious practices prescribed for men.

Nazira Zin al-Din stipulates that the morality of the self and the cleanness of the conscience are far better than the morality of the chador. No goodness is to be hoped from pretence, all goodness is in the essence of the self. Zin al-Din also argues that imposing the veil on women is the ultimate proof that men suspect their mothers, daughters, wives and sisters of being potential traitors to them. This means that men suspect ‘the women closest and dearest to them.’ How can society trust women with the most consequential job of bringing up children when it does not trust them with their faces and bodies? How can Muslim men meet rural and European women who are not veiled and treat them respectfully but not treat urban Muslim women in the same way? 7 She concludes this part of the book, al-Sufur Wa’l-hijab 8 by stating that it is not an Islamic duty on Muslim women to wear hijab. If Muslim legislators have decided that it is, their opinions are wrong. If hijab is based on women’s lack of intellect or piety, can it be said that all men are more perfect in piety and intellect than all women? 9 The spirit of a nation and its civilization is a reflection of the spirit of the mother. How can any mother bring up distinguished children if she herself is deprived of her personal freedom? She concludes that in enforcing hijab, society becomes a prisoner of its customs and traditions rather than Islam.

There are two ayahs which are specifically addressed to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (S) and not to other Muslim women.

These are ayahs 32 and 53 of Sura al-Ahzab. “.. And stay quietly in your houses,” did not mean confinement of the wives of the Prophet (S) or other Muslim women and make them inactive. Muslim women remained in mixed company with men until the late sixth century (A.H.) or eleventh century (CE). They received guests, held meetings and went to wars helping their brothers and husbands, defend their castles and bastions.10

Zin al-Din reviewed the interpretations of Aya 30 from Sura al-Nur and Aya 59 from sura al-Ahzab which were cited above by al-Khazin, al-Nafasi, Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas and al-Tabari and found them full of contradictions. Yet, almost all interpreters agreed that women should not veil their faces and their hands and anyone who advocated that women should cover all their bodies including their faces could not face his argument on any religious text. If women were to be totally covered, there would have been no need for the ayahs addressed to Muslim men: ‘Say to the believing men that they should lower their gaze and guard their modesty.’ (Sura al-Nur, Aya 30). She supports her views by referring to the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (S), always taking into account what the Prophet himself said ‘I did not say a thing that is not in harmony with God’s book.’11 God says: ‘O consorts of the Prophet! ye are not like any of the (other) women’ (Ahzab, 53). Thus it is very clear that God did not want women to measure themselves against the wives of the Prophet and wear hijab like them and there is no ambiguity whatsoever regarding this aya. Therefore, those who imitate the wives of the Prophet and wear hijab are disobeying God’s will.12

In Islam ruh al-madaniyya (Islam: The Spirit of Civilization) Shaykh Mustafa Ghalayini reminds his readers that veiling pre-dated Islam and that Muslims learned from other peoples with whom they mixed. He adds that hijab as it is known today is prohibited by the Islamic shari’a. Any one who looks at hijab as it is worn by some women would find that it makes them more desirable than if they went out without hijab13. Zin al-Din points out that veiling was a custom of rich families as a symbol of status. She quotes Shaykh Abdul Qadir al-Maghribi who also saw in hijab an aristocratic habit to distinguish the women of rich and prestigious families from other women. She concludes that hijab as it is known today is prohibited by the Islamic shari’a.14

Shaykh Muhammad al-Ghazali in his book Sunna Between Fiqh and Hadith 15 declares that those who claim that women’s reform is conditioned by wearing the veil are lying to God and his Prophet. He expresses the opinion that the contemptuous view of women has been passed on from the first jahiliya (the Pre-Islamic period) to the Islamic society. Al-Ghazali’s argument is that Islam has made it compulsory on women not to cover their faces during haj and salat (prayer) the two important pillars of Islam. How then could Islam ask women to cover their faces at ordinary times?16 Al-Ghazali is a believer and is confident that all traditions that function to keep women ignorant and prevent them from functioning in public are the remnants of jahiliya and that following them is contrary to the spirit of Islam.

Al-Ghazali says that during the time of the Prophet women were equals at home, in the mosques and on the battlefield. Today true Islam is being destroyed in the name of Islam.

Another Muslim scholar, Abd al-Halim Abu Shiqa wrote a scholarly study of women in Islam entitled Tahrir al-mara’a fi ‘asr al-risalah: (The Emancipation of Women during the Time of the Prophet)17 agrees with Zin al-Din and al-Ghazali about the discrepancy between the status of women during the time of the Prophet Muhammad and the status of women today. He says that Islamists have made up sayings which they attributed to the Prophet such as ‘women are lacking both intellect and religion’ and in many cases they brought sayings which are not reliable at all and promoted them among Muslims until they became part of the Islamic culture.

Like Zin al-Din and al-Ghazali, Abu Shiqa finds that in many countries very weak and unreliable sayings of the Prophet are invented to support customs and traditions which are then considered to be part of the shari’a. He argues that it is the Islamic duty of women to participate in public life and in spreading good (Sura Tauba, Aya 71). He also agrees with Zin al-Din and Ghazali that hijab was for the wives of the Prophet and that it was against Islam for women to imitate the wives of the Prophet. If women were to be totally covered, why did God ask both men and women to lower their gaze? (Sura al-Nur, Ayath 30-31).

The actual practice of veiling most likely came from areas captured in the initial spread of Islam such as Syria, Iraq, and Persia and was adopted by upper-class urban women. Village and rural women traditionally have not worn the veil, partly because it would be an encumbrance in their work. It is certainly true that segregation of women in the domestic sphere took place increasingly as the Islamic centuries unfolded, with some very unfortunate consequences. Some women are again putting on clothing that identifies them as Muslim women. This phenomenon, which began only a few years ago, has manifested itself in a number of countries.

It is part of the growing feeling on the part of Muslim men and women that they no longer wish to identify with the West, and that reaffirmation of their identity as Muslims requires the kind of visible sign that adoption of conservative clothing implies. For these women the issue is not that they have to dress conservatively but that they choose to. In Iran Imam Khomeini first insisted that women must wear the veil and chador and in response to large demonstrations by women, he modified his position and agreed that while the chador is not obligatory, modest dress is, including loose clothing and non-transparent stockings and scarves.18

With Islam’s expansion into areas formerly part of the Byzantine and Sasanian empires, the scripture-legislated social paradigm that had evolved in the early Medinan community came face to face with alien social structures and traditions deeply rooted in the conquered populations. Among the many cultural traditions assimilated and continued by Islam were the veiling and seclusion of women, at least among the urban upper and upper-middle classes. With these traditions’ assumption into “the Islamic way of life,” they of need helped to shape the normative interpretations of Qur’anic gender laws as formulated by the medireview (urbanized and acculturated) lawyer-theologians. In the latter’s consensus-based prescriptive systems, the Prophet’s wives were recognized as models for emulation (sources of Sunna). Thus, while the scholars provided information on the Prophet’s wives in terms of, as well as for, an ideal of Muslim female morality, the Qur’anic directives addressed to the Prophet’s consorts were naturally seen as applicable to all Muslim women.19

Semantically and legally, that is, regarding both the terms and also the parameters of its application, Islamic interpretation extended the concept of hijab. In scripturalist method, this was achieved in several ways. Firstly, the hijab was associated with two of the Qur’an’s “clothing laws” imposed upon all Muslim females: the “mantle” verse of 33:59 and the “modesty” verse of 24:31. On the one hand, the semantic association of domestic segregation (hijab) with garments to be worn in public (jilbab, khimar) resulted in the use of the term hijab for concealing garments that women wore outside of their houses. This language use is fully documented in the medireview Hadith. However, unlike female garments such as jilbab, lihaf, milhafa, izar, dir’ (traditional garments for the body), khimar, niqab, burqu’, qina’, miqna’a (traditional garments for the head and neck) and also a large number of other articles of clothing, the medireview meaning of hijab remained conceptual and generic. In their debates on which parts of the woman’s body, if any, are not “awra” (literally, “genital,” “pudendum”) and many therefore be legally exposed to nonrelatives, the medireview scholars often contrastively paired woman’s’ awra with this generic hijab. This permitted the debate to remain conceptual rather than get bogged down in the specifics of articles of clothing whose meaning, in any case, was prone to changes both geographic/regional and also chronological. At present we know very little about the precise stages of the process by which the hijab in its multiple meanings was made obligatory for Muslim women at large, except to say that these occurred during the first centuries after the expansion of Islam beyond the borders of Arabia, and then mainly in the Islamicized societies still ruled by preexisting (Sasanian and Byzantine) social traditions.

With the rise of the Iraq-based Abbasid state in the mid-eighth century of the Western calendar, the lawyer-theologians of Islam grew into a religious establishment entrusted with the formulation of Islamic law and morality, and it was they who interpreted the Qur’anic rules on women’s dress and space in increasingly absolute and categorical fashion, reflecting the real practices and cultural assumptions of their place and age. Classical legal compendia, medireview Hadith collections and Qur’anic exegesis are here mainly formulations of the system “as established” and not of its developmental stages, even though differences of opinion on the legal limits of the hijab garments survived, including among the doctrinal teachings of the four orthodox schools of law (madhahib). 20

Attacked by foreigners and indigenous secularists alike and defended by the many voices of conservatism, hijab has come to signify the sum total of traditional institutions governing women’s role in Islamic society. Thus, in the ideological struggles surrounding the definition of Islam’s nature and role in the modern world, the hijab has acquired the status of “cultural symbol.”

Qasim Amin, the French-educated, pro-Western Egyptian journalist, lawyer, and politician in the last century wanted to bring Egyptian society from a state of “backwardness” into a state of “civilization” and modernity. To do so, he lashed out against the hijab, in its expanded sense, as the true reason for the ignorance, superstition, obesity, anemia, and premature aging of the Muslim woman of his time. He wanted the Muslim women to raise from the “backward” hijab into the desirable modernist ideal of women’s right to an elementary education, supplemented by their ongoing contact with life outside of the home to provide experience of the “real world” and combat superstition. He understood the hijab as an amalgam of institutionalized restrictions on women that consisted of sexual segregation, domestic seclusion, and the face veil. He insisted as much on the woman’s right to mobility outside the home as he did on the adaptation of shar’i Islamic garb, which would leave a woman’s face and hands uncovered. Women’s domestic seclusion and the face veil, then, were primary points in Amin’s attack on what was wrong with the Egyptian social system of his time.21 Muhammad Abdu tried to restore the dignity to Muslim woman by way of educational and some legal reforms, the modernist blueprint of women’s Islamic rights eventually also included the right to work, vote, and stand for election-that is, full participation in public life. He separated the forever-valid-as-stipulated laws of ‘ibadat (religious observances) from the more time-specific mu’amalat (social transactions) in Qur’an and shari’a, which latter included the Hadith as one of its sources. Because modern Islamic societies differ from the seventh-century umma, time-specific laws are thus no longer literally applicable but need a fresh legal interpretation (ijtihad). What matters is to safeguard “the public good” (al-maslah al’-amma) in terms of Muslim communal morality and spirituality. 22

In The Veil and the Male Elite: A Feminist Interpretation of Women’s Rights in Islam, the Moroccan sociologist Fatima Mernissi attacks the age-old conservative focus on women’s segregation as mere institutionalization of authoritarianism, achieved by way of manipulation of sacred texts, “a structural characteristic of the practice of power in Muslim societies.” In describing the feminist model of the Prophet’s wives’ rights and roles both domestic and also communal, Mernissi uses the methodology of “literal” interpretation of Qur’an and Hadith. In the selection and interpretations of traditions, she discredits some of textual items as unauthentic by the criteria of classical Hadith criticism. In Mernissi’s reading of Qur’an and Hadith, Muhammad’s wives were dynamic, influential, and enterprising members of the community, and fully involved in Muslim public affairs. He listened to their advice. In the city, they were leaders of women’s protest movements, first for equal status as believers and thereafter regarding economic and sociopolitical rights, mainly in the areas of inheritance, participation in warfare and booty, and personal (marital) relations. Muhammad’s vision of Islamic society was egalitarian, and he lived this ideal in his own household. Later the Prophet had to sacrifice his egalitarian vision for the sake of communal cohesiveness and the survival of the Islamic cause. To Mernissi, the seclusion of Muhammad’s wives from public life (the hijab, Qur’an 33.53) is a symbol of Islam’s retreat from the early principle of gender equality, as is the “mantel” (jilbab) verse of 33:59 which relinquished the principle of social responsibility, the individual sovereign will that internalizes control rather than place it within external barriers. Concerning A’isha’s involvement in political affairs (the Battle of the Camel), Mernissi engages in classical Hadith criticism to prove the inauthenticity of the (presumably Prophetic) traditions “a people who entrust their command [or, affair, amr] to a woman will not thrive” because of historical problems relating to the date of its first transmission and also self-serving motives and a number of moral deficiencies recorded about its first transmitter, the Prophet’s freedman Abu Bakra. Modernists in general disregard hadith items rather than question their authenticity by scrutinizing the transmitters’ reliability.23 After describing the active participation of Muslim women in the battlefields as warriors and nurses to the wounded, Maulana Maudoodi24 says ” This shows that the Islamic purdah is not a custom of ignorance which cannot be relaxed under any circumstances, on the other hand, it is a custom which can be relaxed as and when required in a moment of urgency. Not only is a woman allowed to uncover a part of her satr (coveredness) under necessity, there is no harm.”

In the matter of hijab, the conscience of an honest, sincere Believer alone can be the true judge, as has been said by the Noble Prophet: “Ask for the verdict of your conscience and discard what pricks it.”

Islam cannot be properly followed without knowledge. It is a rational law and to follow it rightly one needs to exercise reason and understanding at every step

Ang Pag Hangad sa Kabilang Buhay,نية الآخرة

Sa Ngalan ng Allah, ang Mapagpala, ang Mahabagin

The intention hereafter or نية الآخرة

Ang Paghangad sa Kabilang Buhay

Ang paghahangad sa kabilang buhay ay hindi ganap ng walang pagtalikod sa mundong ito, at pagtalikod sa mundong ito ay hindi makakamit maliban sa pagkatapos nito.

Hindi baga nila isinasaalang-alang  ang kamelyo kung paano sila nilikha? [Qur’an 88: 17]

Maraming ganap, walang katapusang kasiyahan, at dito ay kakulangan, pansamantala at nawawalang pananaw.

Pagkatapos maintindihan ang lahat ng dalawang bahagi ng karunungan upang gumawa ng pagpipili at talikuran ang nararapat niyang talikdan.
Kaya’t sinuman ang pangkaraniwang nakahandang iwanan ang kasiyahan sa mundong ito at ang kasalukuyang kasiyahan para sa mg kasiyahang nakakubli at dadating pa lang mula sa kabilang buhay ay hindi gagawin ito hangga’t ang kabutihan sa kabilang buhay kung ihahambing sa buhay na ito sa kanya ay malinaw, at may malakas na pagnanasa na makamit ang nakatataas at hindi ang nakakababa.

Kapag pinili niya ang pansamantala at ang hindi sapat, ito ay maaring dahil sa hindi niya nauunawaan ang higit na mabuti para sa kanya o kaya’y wala siyang pagnanasang makamit ang pinakamahusay.

Isa sa kanila ang magpapakita ng kahinaan sa Iman (paniniwala), kaalaman, at pananaw. Sapagka’t ang isa na naghahangad sa mundong ito at ninanais ito dahil sa naniniwala siya na ang meron doon ay higit na mabuti at napagsisikapan o hindi niya lahat lubos ito pinaniniwalaan.

Kapag hindi niya ito pinaniniwalaan, agad niyang mawawala ang kanyang Iman. Sa kabilang bahagi naman ay kapag ito’y kanyang pinaniniwalaan ngnuni’t hindi niya ito ninanais, makaganoon mahina ang kanyang karunungan at paninindigan. Kaya’t ang pagnanais sa buhay na ito kaysa susunod na buhay ay marahil dahil sa hindi tamang Iman o salat sa karunungan.

Ito ang dahilan kung bakit ang Propetar at ang kanyang mga Sahabah at tinalikuran ang mundong ito, inilayo ang kanilang puso mula dito at iniwan ito. Hindi nila ito kinaibigan, kundi tinalikuran nila ito. Hindi nila ito hinangad. Binibilang nila itong bilanguan, at hindi Paraiso! Kanilang tinatanggihan ito. Kung sana’y kanilang nanaisin, maaring mapasakanila ang lahat ng kanilang nanaisin sapagka’t ang susi sa mga yaman nito ay inialok sa kanila, nguni’t tinanggihan nila itong tanggapin.

Hindi nila ipinagpalit ang kanilang bahagi sa Kabilang Buhay sa kanya (mundo). Batid nilang isa lamang itong daanan at lagusan, hindi isang tirahang panananatili at katatagan. Lubos nilang nauunawaan na ito’y pahingaan lamang at hindi lugar na pagdiriwang. Pinangangalaan nila ito tulad ng isang ulap sa panahon ng tag-init na sa anumang oras ay magkahiwa-hiwalay.

Sinabi ng Propetar:

”Kung sino ako sa mundong ito ay walang iba maliban sa isang tao na naglalakbay at huminto sa lilim ng puno upang magpahinga ng sandaling oras at muling ipagpatuloy ang paglalakbay.”

“Ang kahalintulad ng mundong ito sa Kabilang Buhay ay kapag ang isa sa inyo ay inilagay ang kanyang daliri sa dagat at makikita ang makukuha niya mula sa dagat (ang kanyang daliri ay basa tubig ng dagat)”.

Ang ating Panginoon, ang Tagapaglikha sa mundong ito ay nagbigay ng parabola mula sa sarili nating buhay upang ilarawan ang tunay na kahalagahan ng mundong ito:

Katotohanan, ang kahalintulad ng pangkasalukuyang buhay sa mundong ito ay tulad ng ulan na pinamalisbis Namin mula sa alapaap, at sa pagsipsip ng kalupaan, ito ay naghatid ng mga pag-aani ng maraming bunga na nagsisilbing pagkain ng mga tao at mga hayop hanggang nang ang kalupaan ay mapuspos ng ginintuang pahiyas at kagandahan, ang mga tao na nagmamay-ari nito ay nag-aakalang sila ay may kapamahalaan sa lahat dito. At dito, ang Aming pag-uutos ay nakakaabot sa gabi o sa araw, at ginawa Namin ito na parang nalinisan ng traktorang pang-ani, na wari bang ito ay hindi nanagana kahapon (lamang). Kaya’t sa ganito Namin ipinapaliwanag ang Ayat (mga tanda, katibayan, talata, aral, atbp.) nang masinsinan, sa mga tao na may pagmumuni-muni. [Qur’an, 10:24]

Ang Allah ay nananawagan tungo sa Tahanan ng Kapayapaan (alalaong baga, sa Paraiso, sa pamamagitan nang pagtanggap sa Islam, ang relihiyon ng Allah, at sa paggawa ng mga kabutihan at pag-iwas sa pagsamba sa mga diyus-diyosan at masasamang gawa). Pinapatnubayan Niya ang sinumang Kanyang maibigan sa matuwid na landas. [Qur’an, 10:25]

Kaya’t ang AllahU, an gating Panginoon, ay ipinaalam sa atin ang tungkol sa kawalang saysay ng buhay na ito at sinasabi sa atin ang pugad ng kapayapaan at tayo’y kanyang inaanyayahan mula rito.

Sa isa pang parabola, sinabi ng AllahU:

At ihantad sa kanila ang halimbawa ng buhay sa mundong ito; ito ay katulad ng tubig (ulan) na Aming ipinanaog mula sa alapaap, at ang halamanan ng kalupaan ay sumanib sa kanya, at naging sariwa at luntian. Datapuwa’t (sa bandang huli), ito ay naging tuyo at nadurog sa mga piraso na ikinakalat ng hangin. At ang Allah ay Makakagawa ng lahat ng bagay. [Qur’an, 18:45]

Ang kayamanan at mga anak ay palamuti sa buhay sa mundong ito. Datapuwa’t ang mabuti at matuwid na mga gawa (ang limang takdang panalangin, mga gawa ng pagsunod sa Allah, mapitagang pag-uusap, pag-aala-ala sa Allah nang may pagluwalhati, papuri at pasasalamat, atbp.) na nagtatagal ay higit na mabuti sa Paningin ng iyong Panginoon kung sa gantimpala, at higit na mainam kung patungkol sa pag-asa. [Qur’an, 18:46]

At ang paghahambing ng isang masamang salita ay katulad ng isang masamang punongkahoy na nabunot (ang mga ugat) sa ibabaw ng lupa; na walang katatagan. [Qur’an, 14:26]

Kanyang matinding binabalaan sa mga taong labis na nalulugod sa buhay sa mundong ito, nasisiyahan mula dito, ay walang kaalaman sa buhay na ito at hindi umaasang na Makita Siya. Sinabi ng AllahU:

Katotohanan, sila na hindi umaasam ng pakikipagtipan sa Amin at nararahuyo at nasisiyahan lamang sa pangkasalukuyang buhay sa mundong ito, at hindi nagbibigay ng pagpapahalaga sa Aming Ayat (mga tanda, katibayan, talata, aral, atbp.). [Qur’an, 10:7]

Ang kanilang hantungan ay Apoy, na siyang bunga ng kasamaan na kanilang kinita. [Qur’an, 10:8]

O kayong nagsisisampalataya! Ano ang nangyayari sa inyo, na nang kayo ay pagsabihan na pumaroon sa Kapakanan ng Allah  (alalaong baga, sa Jihad [ang banal na pakikipaglaban para sa Allah]), kayo ay mahigpit na kumakapit sa kalupaan? Kayo baga ay nalulugod sa buhay na ito kaysa sa Kabilang Buhay? Datapuwa’t kakaunti lamang ang kasiyahan ng buhay sa mundong ito kung ihahalintulad sa Kabilang Buhay. [Qur’an, 9:38]

Ang ibig sabihin ng pagsunod sa AllahU at ang paghahangad sa Kabilang-buhay ay nagiging pabigat o gawaing mahirap sa isang taong naghahangad sa buhay na ito at nalulugod dito.

Sapat na talikdan ang buhay na ito ayun sa salita ng AllahU:

Sabihin sa Akin; kung hinayaan Namin na sila ay magpakasaya sa maraming taon [Qur’an, 26:205]

At pagkatapos ay dumatal sa kanila (ang kaparusahan) na sa kanila ay ipinangako! [Qur’an, 26:206]

Ang lahat ng bagay na kanilang pinagpapasasaan ay hindi makakatulong sa kanila. [Qur’an, 26:207]

At sa Araw na sila ay Kanyang titipunin (sa muling pagbangon), dito nila mapagtatanto na wari bang sila  ay namalagi lamang ng isang oras sa isang araw (sa buhay sa mundong ito). Mapagkikilala nila ang isa’t isa. Tunay na masaklap ang kahihinatnan ng mga nagtatakwil sa pakikipagtipan sa Allah, at sila ay hindi napapatnubayan. [Qur’an, 10:45]

Kaya’t ikaw ay maging matimtiman (O Muhammad) na katulad rin ng mga ginawa (noon) ng mga Tagapagbalita na may matatag na hangarin at huwag mong madaliin ang mga hindi sumasampalataya. Sa Araw na kanilang mamamasdan (ang kaparusahan) na ipinangako sa kanila, (rito ay wari bang) sila ay hindi man lamang nagtagal ng isang oras sa buong maghapon. (Ang iyong tungkulin) ay upang ihatid lamang ang Paala-ala. (O sangkatauhan, ang Qur’an na ito ay isang maliwanag na Tagubilin o Pahayag upang iligtas ninyo ang inyong sarili sa pagkawasak). Datapuwa’t walang mawawasak maliban sa mga tao na Al-Fasiqun (mga lumalabag sa pagmamalabis at mapaghimagsik sa Allah). [Qur’an, 46:35]

At sa Araw na ang Oras (ng Pagsusulit) ay ititindig, ang Mujrimun (mga nagsilabag sa utos, kriminal, buktot, tampalasan, mapagsamba sa mga diyus-diyosan, makasalanan, atbp.) ay manunumpa na sila ay nanatili lamang ng isang oras, kaya’t sa ganito sila ay nalinlang sa katotohanan (alalaong baga, sila ay nahirati na sa pagsasabi ng kasinungalingan at bulaang pagsaksi at tumatalikod sa katotohanan sa buhay sa mundong ito)! [Qur’an, 30:55]

Siya (Allah) ay magwiwika: “Ilang taon ba kayong nanatili sa lupa?” [Qur’an, 23:112]

Sila ay magsasabi: “Kami ay nanatili ng isang araw o bahagi ng isang araw. Tanungin ang mga nagtatala.” [Qur’an, 23:113]

Siya (Allah) ay magwiwika: “Nanatili lamang kayo nang sandali, – kung inyo lamang nalalaman!” [Qur’an, 23:114]

The true Relegion,,, الدين الصحيح

الدين الصحيح


إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِندَ اللّهِ الإِسْلاَمُ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ الَّذِينَ أُوْتُواْ الْكِتَابَ إِلاَّ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ وَمَن

يَكْفُرْ بِآيَاتِ اللّهِ فَإِنَّ اللّهِ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَاب


3:19 The Religion before Allah is Islam (submission to His Will): Nor did the People of the Book dissent therefrom except through envy of each other, after knowledge had come to them. But if any deny the Signs of Allah, Allah is swift in calling to account.

The Arabic word “Deen” is not just religious rituals, it includes guidance and rules for social, economic, political, and other aspects of life.

In another place in the Holy Quran, Allah T’ala tells us:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ ادْخُلُواْ فِي السِّلْمِ كَآفَّةً وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُواْ خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ

O ye who believe! Enter into Islam whole-heartedly; and follow not the footsteps of the evil one (Satan); for he is to you an avowed enemy. (2:208)

Enter into the fold of Islam fully. Islam is it! This is your home. Don’t look elsewhere for anything. Look it up right here in the fold of Islam and be happy and satisfied with it. Islam is the complete way of life and the only way for success.

We did begin our life on earth on Deen-ul-Islam, as one Ummah. We were an Islamic Muslim community. With time, atheists, idol-worshippers (Mushriks) and ascetics, materialists, servants of Satan came out of the Muslim community.

كَانَ النَّاسُ أُمَّةً وَاحِدَةً فَبَعَثَ اللّهُ النَّبِيِّينَ مُبَشِّرِينَ وَمُنذِرِينَ وَأَنزَلَ مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ بِالْحَقِّ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَ النَّاسِ فِيمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ

فِيهِ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ فِيهِ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءتْهُمُ الْبَيِّنَاتُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ فَهَدَى اللّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لِمَا اخْتَلَفُواْ فِيهِ مِنَ

الْحَقِّ بِإِذْنِهِ وَاللّهُ يَهْدِي مَن يَشَاء إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ


2:213 Mankind was one single nation, and Allah sent Messengers with glad tidings and warnings; and with them He sent the Book in truth, to judge between people in matters wherein they differed; but the People of the Book, after the clear Signs came to them, did not differ among themselves, except through selfish contumacy. Allah by His Grace Guided the believers to the Truth, concerning that wherein they differed. For Allah guided whom He will to a path that is straight.

Allah T’ala sent Prophet Muhammad (s.a.a.w.) as a Mercy for the world and by the Grace of Allah T’ala, he successfully established one Islamic ummah. It stayed that way during the period of khulufa-ur-Rashidoon. But then soon after the martyrdom of Ali ibne Abi Talib (karamullah wajhu), the khilafah changed into kingship. That is when in the Ummah of Muhammad (s.a.a.w.), for the first time, Deen-ul-Islam was sliced as what the westerners call “Separation of Church and State.” That is when the focus of the people shifted from aspiring for Akhirah to worldly lusts and ambitions. So in the history, for example, you will find during the time of a caliph, houses became the topic of the town. In another caliph’s time, sex became the topic of the town.

All this happened at a time, when millions of people of the world have come into the fold of Islam and they needed proper Islamic education. The Muslim government was the best source to provide that education and it failed. No doubt, the task of educating the masses was taken up by great Imams, but obviously, it had its limitations.

These caliphs unfortunately, instead of leaving behind a Sadaqa-Jariah, left behind a Fitnahe-Jariah. What a terrible thing to do!

Be happy and grateful to Allah T’ala that you are not one of those. There is a blessing to be an ordinary person.

Muslim ummah remained in the hands of such caliphs for centuries. Great punishments thru crusaders and Mongols came to the ummah. Then came slavery and colonialism by the western powers. Eventually, freedom came, but what a freedom. Western powers left behind anti-Islamic systems of governments and their minions and cronies. That is how one can describe today’s governments of most of the Muslim countries.

When the system of government, the constitution, the by-laws, judgments and rulings in a country or community are not based on the Holy Quran and Sunnah, the rulers and administrators of that country or community are nothing but kafirs, Zalims and Fasiqs. That is not what I say. That is what Allah T’ala says.

Fourteen centuries ago, Allah T’ala revealed ayaat 44-47 in Surah Al-Maidah (Chapter 5), which speak about the deviations of the Jews and Christians. They were revealed for the Muslim ummah to learn a lesson and not fall into the same errors.

Ayat 44 in Surah 5 says:

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَا التَّوْرَاةَ فِيهَا هُدًى وَنُورٌ يَحْكُمُ بِهَا النَّبِيُّونَ الَّذِينَ أَسْلَمُواْ لِلَّذِينَ هَادُواْ وَالرَّبَّانِيُّونَ وَالأَحْبَارُ بِمَا اسْتُحْفِظُواْ

مِن كِتَابِ اللّهِ وَكَانُواْ عَلَيْهِ شُهَدَاء فَلاَ تَخْشَوُاْ النَّاسَ وَا خْشَوْنِ وَلاَ تَشْتَرُواْ بِآيَاتِي ثَمَنًا قَلِيلاً وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا

أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْكَافِرُونَ

5:44 It was We who revealed the law (to Moses): therein was guidance and light. By its standard have been judged the Jews, by the prophets who bowed (as in Islam) to Allah’s will, by the rabbis and the doctors of law: for to them was entrusted the protection of Allah’s book, and they were witnesses thereto: therefore fear not men, but fear me, and sell not my signs for a miserable price. If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are Unbelievers.

In the next Ayat, Allah T’ala says:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأ وْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ

And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are Zalimoon (wrong-doers, unjust, oppressors).


Then two verses down in Ayaat 47:

وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ

If any do fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are Fasiqoon (rebels, disobedients).

Kufr is unbelief. Kafir is unbeliever. Zulm is injustice and oppression. Oppression can be against others like you see violations of basic human rights committed by Muslim rulers and the so-called most civilized countries. Oppression can be self-oppression also. Oppression against one’s own self leads oneself into misery and punishment by Allah T’ala.Zulm can be so severe that it can put the person into the Jahannum. In Surah Luqman, Shirk is given as Zulmun-Azeem. And shirk is unforgivable sin. Fisq is disobedience. Fisq is rebellion, breaking the Law of Allah T’ala.Fisq can also be so great that it makes a person Kafir and puts him in Jahannum. When Allah T’ala ordered angels to prostrate to Adam (a.s.) and Shaitan refused to prostrate, as Allah T’ala says in Surah Kahf, Ayat 50, he committed Fisq.

وإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ كَانَ مِنَ الْجِنِّ فَفَسَقَ عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِ أَفَتَتَّخِذُونَهُ وَذُرِّيَّتَهُ أَوْلِيَاء مِن دُونِي وَهُمْ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ بِئْسَ لِلظَّالِمِينَ بَدَلً

18:50 Behold! We said to the angels, “Bow down to Adam”: They bowed down except Iblis. He was one of the Jinns, and he broke the Command of his Lord. Will ye then take him and his progeny as protectors rather than Me? And they are enemies to you! Evil would be the exchange for the wrong-doers!


It is evident that non-Muslim governments do not follow Islamic Shariah. We don’t expect them to, as they are disbelievers. The more serious problem is that Muslim countries are doing the same. Today, you will find secular Muslim governments, socialist Muslim governments, communist Muslim governments, Democratic Muslim governments, but hardly any Islamic Muslim government.

Muslim rulers, instead of prostrating to Allah T’ala, the One and Only Deity, prostrate to the false deities of democracy, secularism, nationalism, socialism, communism, the deities of their own lust and Baghi (iniquity). That has put the Muslim ummah into such a terrible state that we find it difficult to get back to the Straight path.

As the great poet of Islam, Allamah Iqbal said:

The one Sajdah that you find cumbersome, is the Sajdah that saves man from thousands of prostrations. The prostrations to democracy, secularism and the like have brought nothing but ruins to the Muslim Ummah. When Muslim countries leave Islamic Shariah, they are competing with non-Muslim countries in sin!

The ayaat of Surah Al-Maidah I have read to you are not just for rulers of nations and communities. They do apply on all of us. Ibn `Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) reported: I heard Messenger of Allah (PBUH) saying, “All of you are guardians and are responsible for your wards. The ruler is a guardian and responsible for his subjects; the man is a guardian and responsible for his family; the woman is a guardian and is responsible for her husbands house and his offspring; and so all of you are guardians and are responsible for your wards.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

We all have to worry about falling into the traps of kufr, zulm and fisq.Let us do our best to seek guidance in all affairs of our life from the Holy Quran and the sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (s.a.a.w.).Standing still in the face of the wind of troubling time will push us back. Let us try to move forward. Let us read Quran for guidance, seek knowledge and act upon it.

May Allah T’ala forgive our sins and have a lot more of His Mercy on the Muslim Ummah. Ameen

Ang Pasko or (Christmas)

Sa Ngalan ng Allah, Ang Mapagpala, Ang Mahabagin

رؤية الإسلام فى عيد كريسماس

Ang Pananaw ng Islam sa Pasko o (Christmas)

Ang paksang tatalakayin ay sadyang mahalaga sapagka’t ito’y laganap at naging bahagi na ng buhay ng napakaraming tao sa buong mundo. Isang pagdiriwang na mahirap alisin sa ating kaisipan, lalong-lalo na sa mga balik-Islam, sa dahilang ang naturang pagdiriwang ay kinamulatan at nakagisnan nating pananampalatayang Kristiyanismo.

Gayundin naman, sa mga kapatid nating isinilang sa mga Muslim na magulang, marahil ay marami rin sa kanila ang sumasama o umaayon sa pagdiriwang na ito sa iba’t ibang pamamaraan.

Sa mga hindi pa Muslim, makakatulong din ito upang malaman nila ang pananaw ng Islam sa pagdiriwang ng Pasko.


Kahulugan ng Christmas (Pasko)

Kung ating titingnan ang kahulugan ng Christmas, ito ay isang pagdiriwang ng kalakhang Kristiyanismo tuwing Disyembre 25 bilang paggunita sa mahimalang pagsilang ni Hesu-Kristo. Ang mga Muslim ay naniniwala sa mirakulong pagkasilang ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya. Hindi ka maituturing na tunay na Muslim kapag hindi ka naniniwala dito dahil ito ay nasasaad sa Qur’an [Surah Al Imran, 3:45-47]:


“Nang ang mga anghel ay nagsabi: O Maria! Tunay, nagpadala sa iyo ang Allah ng isang magandang balita – isang Salita mula sa Kanya, ang kanyang pangalan ay si Messiyah Hesus, ang anak ni Maria, na bibigyang dangal sa daigdig na ito at sa kabilang buhay, at siya ay makakasama ng mga malalapit sa Allah.” [Surah Al Imran, 3:45]


“Siya ay magsasalita sa tao mula sa duyan at sa kanyang paglaki, at siya ay mabibilang sa mga matutuwid.” [Surah Al Imran, 3:46]


Siya (si Maria) ay nagsabi: “O aking Panginoon, paano ako magkakaroon ng anak gayong walang lalaking humawak sa akin.” Siya’y nagsabi: “Sa gayo’y mangyayari, sapagka’t nililikha ng Allah ang anumang Kanyang naisin. Kapag itinakda ang isang bagay, Kanya lamang sasabihin: “Maging” – at ito’y mangyayari.” [Surah Al Imran, 3:47]


Kung tutuusin, makatuwiran lamang na ang mga Kristiano at Muslim ay nararapat lamang na magdiwang sa Araw ng Pasko dahil pareho naman silang naniniwala sa pagkasilang ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.


Datapwa’t hindi maipaglilihim na ang mga Muslim sa buong daigdig ay hindi nagdiriwang sa araw na ito. Hindi ba ito salungat sa kanilang sinasabing paniniwala sa pagkasilang ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, na isinilang ni Birheng Maria?


Ito ang malaking katanungan na ating tatalakayin. Kung bakit ang mga Muslim ay hindi nagdiriwang sa araw ng Pasko bagama’t sinasabi nila sa sila’y naniniwala kay Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, na itinuturing nilang isa sa mga dakilang Propetang isinugo ng Allah sa lupa.

Saan Nanggaling ang Katagang “Christmas”?

Upang lubusan nating maunawaan ang Christmas o Pasko, dapat nating malaman kung saan nanggaling ang katagang Christmas o kung ano ang saligan.

Ayon sa mga iskolar na Kristiyano, ang Christmas ay hinango sa mga katagang CHRISTES MASI, na ang ibig sabihin ay Christ Mass, o ang misang patungkol kay Kristo-Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.

Ang katagang ito “Christmas” ay unang ginamit noong ika-11 siglo (1100 years ago) mga 1,000 taon matapos mawala si Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, sa mundong ito.

Kaya naman, ang salitang ito ay hindi ginamit ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, at ni hindi niya alam ang salitang ito. Maging ang kanyang mga alagad o disipulo ay walang kaalam-alam sa katagang ito sa dahilang hindi tinuran ni Hesus sa kanyang kapanahunan.

Sa wikang Romano, ito ay tinatawag na “DEIS METALIS DOMINI” na ang ibig sabihin ay kaarawan ng panginoong diyos. Isang gawaing Shirk.

Katibayan sa Kaarawan ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.

Tungkol naman sa petsang Disyembre 25, ang mga iskolar na Kristiyano ay naniniwala na walang sinumang nakababatid sa eksaktong kaarawan ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.

Ating mababasa sa COLLIER ENCYCLOPEDIA– “Ang eksaktong kaarawan ni Hesus ay imposibleng malaman kahit gamitin pa ang mga nakasulat sa ebanghelyo pati na ang kasaysayang nauukol kay Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.”

Gayundin, sa NEW INTL. DICTIONARY OF CHRISTIAN CHURCH, mababasa natin na walang mapagbabatayan sa kasaysayan na nagbibigay katibayan sa araw, at buwan ng pagkasilang ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.

Sa Islam, ang pagkasilang ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, ay nababanggit sa Qur’an [Surah Maryam, 19:22-26]

“At siya’y nagdalantao, at humayo sa malayong lugar. [Surah Maryam, 19:22]

At ang sakit ng panganganak ay nagtaboy sa kanya sa may puno ng palmera at siya ay nagsabi: “Sana’y matagal na akong namatay bago pa dumating ito, at nabaon na (ako) sa limot at wala na sa paningin (ninuman)!” [Surah Maryam, 19:23]


At nagsalita (ang batang si Hesus o si Gabriel) sa may ibaba niya: “Huwag magdalamhati!  Ang iyong Panginoon ay nagbigay sa iyo ng isang batis na umaagos sa may ibaba mo. [Surah Maryam, 19:24]

At ugain mo ang puno ng palmera at maglalaglagan ang sariwang hinog na bunga nito sa iyo. [Surah Maryam, 19:25]

Kaya’t kumain at uminom at magalak. At kung makakita ng tao, iyong abihin: Katotohanan, ako ay nangako sa Mapagpala ng pag-aayuno, kaya’t hindi ako makikipag-usap kaninumang tao sa araw na ito.” [Surah Maryam, 19:26]

Pagdiriwang ng Kaarawan

Sa unang tatlong siglo makaraang mawala si Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, sa daigdig, ang simbahan ay may malakas na oposisyon laban sa pagdiriwang ng kaarawan (birthday) sapagka’t ito ay isang kaugaliang pagano.

Ang mga Hudyo ay hindi nagdiriwang ng kanilang kaarawan. At si Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, ay isang Hudyo. Hindi siya nagdiwang ng kaarawan at hindi rin naman ipinagdiwang ang kanyang kaarawan ng kanyang mga alagad o disipulo.

Ang pagdiriwang ng kaarawan ay bantog na bantog noon pa sa mga paganong Greko at Romano. Ito ay ipinagdiriwang sa pamamagitan ng pagdarasal, pag-aalay, masaganang kainan, at ang pagbibigay ng regalo sa may kaarawan.

Kaya’t ang pagdiriwang ng birthday ay isang kaugalian ng mga pagano at ito ay walang kinalaman sa relihiyon na dinala ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya. Ito ay sadyang napakaliwanag. Dito makikita na ang pinanggalingan ng pagdiriwang ng kaarawan ay hindi nabibilang sa mga kapahayagan ng Allah bagkus isang kaugalian ng mga pagano ng isinama sa isinasagawa ngayon ng simbahang Kristiyanismo.


Pagdiriwang ng Pasko sa iba’t ibang Petsa

Si CLEMENT  NG ALEXANDRIA ay nagsabi na ang pagdiriwang ng kaarawan ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, ay naroroon na noong taong 200 sa Ehipto.

Ito ay ipinagdiriwang sa iba’t ibang araw sa iba’t ibang lugar. Ang mga iskolar ng Kristiyanismo noong ika-2, 3, 4 at 5 na siglo, ay nag-aangkin ang bawa’t isa sa kanila ng kaalaman sa tunay na kaarawan ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.  Wala silang napagkasunduan tungkol sa eksaktong kaarawan ni Hesus.

Matapos mabinyagan si Constantine sa pananampalatayang Kristianismo, ang simbahan sa Roma ay ipinag-utos ang pagdiriwang ng kaarawan ni Hesus tuwing ika-25 ng Disyembre. Ang panahon ni Constantine ay noong ika-4 na siglo. Sa panahong ito lamang itinakda ang Disyembre 25 bilang kaarawan ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.

Bagama’t karamihan ng Kristiyano sa mga panahong yaon ay nagdiriwang sa kaarawan ni Hesus tuwing Disyembre 25, ang pagdiriwang ng mga Armenians (Eastern Church) ay kanilang isinasagawa tuwing ika-6 ng Enero magpahangga ngayon.

Ano ang Saligan ng Pagpili sa Disyembre 25?

Saan nanggaling ang Disyembre 25? Ating matutunghayan din sa COLLIERS ENCYCLOPEDIA na ang pagpili ng Disyembre 25 ay nakuha sa mga paganong Romano sa kanilang pagdiriwang ng “MITALIS SOLIS INVICTI”, isang pagdiriwang sa kapangyarihan ng Diyos na Araw (Sun God) sa relihiyong MITHRAISM.

Ang pagdiriwang na ito ay sadyang kilalang-kilala sa mga Romano. Ito ay tanda na ang simbahan ay ginamit itong paraan upang akitin ang mga Romano na ipagdiwang ang kaarawan ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, sa petsang ito upang makalimutan nila ang kanilang pagsamba sa Araw.

Huwag nating kalilimutan na ang Kristiyanismo ay pinalaganap sa Roma at upang hikayatin ang mga paganong ito, isinama sa pagdiriwang ng simbahan ang kanilang mga paganong kaugalian.

Sina ST. CIPRIAN at ST. JOHN CRYSOSTOM ay pinatutunayan ito sa kanilang mga aklat.

Gayundin naman, ating mababasa sa ENCYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIONS AND ETHICS na may isang matandang kaugalian ang mga Romano sa pagdiriwang ng SATURNALIA (God of Saturn).

–    Ito ay pinagdiriwang sa araw ng Disyembre 25.

–    Ito ay laganap sa bansa. (National holiday)

–    Ang mga paaralan ay nakasara

–    Walang ipinatutupad na kaparusahan sa araw ng iyon (ceasefire)

–    Nagpapalit sila ng damit

–    Ang sugal na dice ay pinahihintulutan

–    Nagbibigayan ng regalo.  Manika ang ipinamimigay sa bata.

Sa Northern Europe, ang tribo ng TEOTONIC ay nagdiriwang ng kanilang WINTER SOLISTICE tuwing ika-25 ng Disyembre sa paniniwalang isinisilang na muli ang araw.

Ang pagdiriwang ng Disyembre 25 ay naging laganap at ito ay itinuring ng simbahan ng Kristiyanismo bilang isang pamamaraan ng kanilang dibosyon sa pananampalataya.

Pagbabawal sa Pagdiriwang

Magkagayunman, noong sumapit ang taong 1642 hanggang 1652, ang mga Kristiyanong Puritano sa Inglateria ay nagpalabas ng batas sa pagbabawal ng misa at pagdiriwang sa araw na ito.

Gayundin, ito ang naging desisyon ng mga Kristiyano sa Amerika na dala ng mga dayuhan.

Subali’t nang dumating ang taong 1900, ang maraming mga dayuhan sa Amerika na galing sa Germany at Ireland ay nagbigay buhay na naman sa paganong pagdiriwang na ito. Kahit na may oposisyon (pagtutol ng simbahan), ito ay natabunan dahil sa dami ng mga imigrante.

Christmas Tree

Maging ang Christmas tree ay galing din sa paganong kaugalian. Ito ay sikat sa nauang Ehipto at Roma. Sa kanilang pagdiriwang sa Saturnalia, ang Evergreen tree ang gamit na palamuti sa bahay at sa mga kalsada dahil ito ay simbolo ng walang hanggang buhay sa dahilang ang punong ito ay hindi namamatay sa panahon ng taglamig (winter).

Mga Tagasunod ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya.

Kaya’t ang masugid na Kristiyano, tagasunod ni Hesu-Kristo, lalang-lalo na ang mga lagi nang bumabanggit ng John 14:6 – “Ako ang landas, katotohanan, at ang buhay.  Walang makapaparoon sa Ama maliban sa pamamagitan ko”, ay dapat lamang sundin ang landas na itinuro ni Hesus.

Ang Pasko ay walang koneksiyon sa pagtuturo ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya. Ang pagdiriwang nito ay hindi magbibigay kasiyahan sa kanya at sa nagsugo sa kanya dahil hindi naman niya ito ipinatupad. Ito ay hindi bahagi ng landas ng kanyang itinuro.

Ang mga Muslim ba ay pinahihintulutang sumama sa pagdiriwang ng Pasko o kaya’y magbigay pagbati sa Pasko.  Hindi dahil sa mga sumusunod;

1. Ito ay isang hayagang pagkunsinti sa isang kaugaliang pagano.

2. Ito ay isang gawaing hindi naaayon sa turo ni Hesus

3. Ito ay direktang pagsalungat o paglabag sa kanyang pananampalataya.

4. Ito ay isang pagkukunwari at ang Islam ay kinasusuklaman ang pagkukunwari.

Si Propeta Muhammad ay nagsabi:

“Sinuman ang gumaya sa kaugalian ng iba, siya ay nabibilang sa kanila.”

Ang Qur’an ay nagsasabi:

“Sa araw na ito ay pinaging-ganap Ko ang inyong relihiyon para sa inyo, ginawang lubos ang Aking tulong sa inyo, at pinili para sa inyo ang Islam bilang inyong relihiyon….” [Surah Al Maidah, 5:3]

Naniniwala tayo sa Allah at sa itinuturo ng Islam batay sa kapahayagan.   Ito ay hindi nagbabago ayon sa kapritso o pagkagusto ng tao.  Ang Qur’an at ang mga Sunnah ni Propeta Muhammad, ang magsisilbing gabay sa atin kung paano natin isabuhay ang itinuturo ng Islam.

Pagdiriwang sa Kaarawan ni Propeta Muhammad

Ngayon naman, ang maaaring itanong sa atin ay ganito:  Bakit ninyo sinasabing ang pagdiriwang ng kaarawan ni Hesus, Ang biyaya at habag ng Allah nawa’y mapasakanya, ay gawaing pagano, samantalang kayo ay nagdiriwang din ng kaarawan ni Propeta Muhammad.

Ito ay sadyang napakalungkot na nangyayari. Bagama’t ang mga Muslim ay may maliwanag na patnubay na nananatiling nasa orihinal na anyo hanggang sa ngayon, hindi pa rin maiwasan ng iba ang pagsagawa ng mga bagay na salungat sa itinuturo ng Islam. Ito ay dulot ng kamangmangan sa pananampalataya at sa pagnanais na tularan ang ginagawa ng iba.

Si Propeta Muhammad ay nagsabi:

“Anumang bagong bagay na isinasama sa ating pananampalatayang ito (Islam), ay hayaan itong itakwil.”

Si Propeta Muhammad ay nagsabi:

“Wala nang iba pang gawain na makapaglalapit sa inyo sa Allah maliban lamang sa mga naituro ko sa inyo.”

Bilang pangwakas, tayong mga Muslim ay may dalawang batayan sa ating panuntunan ng buhay: ang Qur’an at ang Sunnah ni Propeta Muhammad. Ang ating pamumuhay at pagsamba ay nararapat lamang ayon sa Kanyang ipinahayag at sa pamamaraang itinuro ng Kanyang Propeta upang ito ay tanggapin ng Allah.

Si Propeta Muhammad ay nagsabi:

“May dalawang bagay akong iiwanan sa inyo na kung inyo itong panghahawakan ng mahigpit ay hindi kayo maliligaw: ang purong Salita ng Allah at ang aking Sunnah.”

Mga karagdagang mga talata sa Qur’an at mga Hadith:

“Katotohanan, nasa Sugo ng Allah ang pinakamahusay na halimbawa upang pamarisan – sa sinuman na may pag-asam sa (pagharap sa) Allah, sa Huling Araw at laging alaala ang Allah. [Surah Al Ahzab, 33:21]

“…At anuman ang ibigay sa inyo ng Sugo ay kunin ito, at anumang kanyang ipagbawal sa inyo ay iwasan ito…” [Surah Hashr, 59:7]

“… At hayaan ang mga sumasalungat sa mga ipinag-uutos ng Sugo na mag-ingat, kung hindi’y magkakaroon sila ng Fitnah (pagsubok, kahirapan, lindol, patayan, pang-aapi, etc) o isang napakasakit na parusa ang mapapasakanila.” [Surah An-Nur, 24:63]

“O kayong nananampalataya!  Sundin ang Allah at sundin ang Sugo), at  yaong may otoridad. Kung kayo’y di-magkaunawaan sa anumang bagay sa isa’t isa, isangguni sa Allah at sa Kanyang Sugo (saws), kung kayo ay naniniwala sa Allah at sa Huling Araw.  Iyon ay higit na mahusay at higit na karapat-dapat sa huling pagpapasiya.” [Surah An-Nisa, 4:59]

“At kung inyong susundin ang karamihan dito sa daigdig, kanilang ililigaw kayo nang malayo sa landas ng Allah.  Wala silang sinusunod maliban sa haka-haka, at wala silang ginawa kundi magsinungaling.” [Surah Al An-am, 6:116]

Si Propeta Muhammad ay nagsabi:

“Mag-ingat sa kalabisan tungkol sa relihiyon.  Napahamak ang mga nauna sa inyo dahil sa kanilang pagmamalabis tungkol sa relihiyon.”

Si Propeta Muhammad ay nagsabi:

“Huwag magmalabis sa pagpuri sa akin kagaya ng ginawa ng mga Kristiyano sa anak ni Maria. Ako ay isang alipin, kaya’t inyo lamang  sabihin: “Alipin ng Allah at Kanyang Sugo”.










Mga Salawikain


  • Kung may tinanim,may aanhin.

  • kung may isinuksok,may madudukot.

  • Kung may tiyaga,may nilaga. 

: قال عليه الصلاة والسلام

(ما مِن مسلم يزرع زرعاً، أو يغرس غرساً، فيأكل منه طير، أو إنسان، أو بهيمة إلا كانت له به صدقة)

Pag papaliwanag:

sang ayon sa Hadith o salawikain ni Propeta Muhammad

sumakanya nawa ang kapayapaan:

Kung sinoman ang taong Muslim na may itinanim na mga pananim,o mga asinda,

at may makakain na mga ibon,mga tao at mga hayop ay iyan ay counted na sadaqa o charity.

ang ibig sabihin ay mayron kanang na ipadala sa kabilang buhay na aanhin mo doon( gantimpala )