Virtues of ethics

Excellent ethics are good manners which each Muslim should know and practice. Allah says in the Quran in Surah an-Nahl, verse 90: {Verily, Allah enjoins justice and kindness, and giving (help) to kith and kin, and forbids all evil deeds and al-Munkar (all that Islam has forbidden) and oppression. He admonishes you, that you may take heed}

Allah’s Messenger r was asked about the deed which will be foremost to lead a man to Paradise. He replied: “Fear of Allah and good character.” [Tirmidhi].

Honesty

 Allah the Almighty said in Surah at-Tawbah, verse 119:

 {O you who believe, fear Allah and be with those who are true (in words and deeds)} 

The Messenger of Allah r  said: “Truthfulness leads to righteousness and righteousness leads to Paradise. And a man keeps on telling the truth until he becomes a truthful person…”

Trust

Allah the Almighty said in Surah an-Nisaa, verse 58: {Verily, Allah commands that you should render back the trusts to those whom they are due}                                                                                                                 [al-Nisaa: verse 58].

The Messenger of Allah r said: “There are three signs of a pure hypocrite: When he speaks, he lies; when he makes a promise, he breaks it; and when he is trusted, he betrays his trust.”                                          [Agreed upon].

Kindness to Parents

Kindness to one’s parents is to be extremely good to one’s mother and father, to help them and to obey them without disobeying Allah’s orders.

Allah the Almighty said in Surah al-Israa, verse 23: {and Your Lord has decreed that you worship none but Him. And that you be dutiful to your parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age in your life, say not to them a word of disrespect, nor shout at them but address them in terms of honor.} 

 Once Abdullah ibn Masood asked the Prophet r to tell him the deeds which Allah likes the most. The Prophet replied. `To offer prayers on time.’ He asked him to tell the second best. He was told `to be kind towards parents’. He asked him to tell the third best and the Prophet replied: ‘Jihad in the way of Allah.’ [Agreed upon].

Keeping ties of Kinship

The Prophet r said, “The word ‘Ar-Rahm’ (womb) derives its name from ‘Ar-Rahman’ (i.e. Allah). So whosoever keeps good relations with it (womb i.e. Kith and kin), Allah will keep good relations with him, and whosoever will sever it, Allah too will sever His relations with him.”       [Bukhari and Muslim]

Good words and Cheerful face

It is narrated by Abu Dharr that the Prophet r said: “Do not consider any act of kindness insignificant, even meeting your brother with a cheerful face.”                                                                                           [Muslim]

 The obligation of loving your brother in Islam

Anas relates that the Prophet r said: “None of you truly believes until he loves for his brother what he loves for himself” [Bukhari]

Co-operation between believers

Abu Musa narrated that the Prophet r said: “A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.” The Prophet then clasped his hands with the fingers interlaced.                      [Agreed upon].

Kindness

The Messenger of Allah r said: “Whenever kindness is added to something, it adorns it; and whenever it is withdrawn from something, it leaves it defective.”[Muslim].

මූහම්මද් නබි (සල්) තුමාගේ ජීවතයෙහි විශේෂ සිදුවීම් කිහිපයක්

                

ක්රි‍.ව. 571 (ආමූල් ෆීල්) ඇත් වසරේ දී අබ්දුල්ලාහ්ගේ අභාවය සහ අප නායක මුහම්මද් නබී (සල්) තුමගේ උපත

 මුහම්මද් නබී (සල්) තුමා අවුරුදු 6 පසු වෙද්දී ක්රිා.ව. 576 දී අමීනා මාතාව අභාවයට පත්වීම සහ එතුමාගේ සීයා වූ අබ්දුල් මුත්තලිබ් එතුමාට ආරක්ෂාව සලසා දීම.

 අවුරුදු 8 එනම් ක්රිු.ව.578 දී එතුමාගේ සීය වූ අබ්දුල් මුතලිබ් අභාවයට පත් වීමෙන් එතුමාග් බාප්පා වූ අබූතාලිබ් එතුමාට ආරක්ෂාව සලසා දීම.

 නබි තුමාට අවුරුදු 12 වෙද්දී එතුමා සිරියාවට අබූතලිබ් සමග වෙළෙඳාමෙහි යෙදීම.

 නබි තුමාගේ වයස අවුරුදු 20 දී හර්බුල් ෆිජාර් සටනට අවසාන වශයෙන් සහභාගී වීම.

 නබිතුමාට අවුරුදු 22 වෙද්දී එතුමා හිල් ෆුල් ෆුලූල් සන්ගමයේ කටයුතු වල නිරත වීම.

 අවුරුදු 23 දී නබි තුමාට අල් අමීන් ගෞරව නාමය ලැබීම .

 අවුරුදු 25 දී කදීජා තුමිය සමග එතුමා වෙළඳ ද්රයව්යම රැගෙන සිරියාවට යාම සහ එතුමාටත් කදීජා තුමියත් අතර විවාහ මන්ගල‍යැ සිදුවීම.

 අවුරුදු 35 දී එතුමා කාබතුල්ලාහ්ව ප්ර්තිසන්ස්කරණය කිරීමේදී හජරුල් අස්වද් නැමැති ගල සම්බන්ධ ප්රතශ්ණයේදී විනිශ්චය දීම.

අවුරුදු 36 දී නබි තුමා “හිරා” ගුහාවෙහි නිතර නිතර වීමට පටන් ගැනීම.

එතුමාට අවුරුදු 40 පසුවෙද්දී එතුමාට නබිත්වය ලැබීම සහ කදීජා, සයිද්, අලී,බිලාල්,අබූබක් ර් (රලී)ඉස්ලාමය වැළඳ ගැනීම.

අවුරුදු 43 දී එතුමා ප්‍රසිධියේම ඉස්ලාමය ප්‍රචාරය කිරීමට ඇරඹීම.

අවුරුදු 46 දී “හම්සා”උමර් (රලි) තුමා මුස්ලිම් බවට පත්වීම ද නබි තුමා ප්‍රසිධියේ සලාතය ඉටු කිරීමට ඇරඹීම .

අවුරුදු 45 දී මුස්ලිම්වරු ඇබිසීනියාවට විගමනය වීම.

අවුරුදු 47 දී ඇබිසීනියවට දෙවන කණ්ඩායමක් ලෙස යෑම.

අවුරුදු 48 දී නබි තුමාණන්ගේ සහ බනුහාශිම්වරුන්ගේ සම්බන්ධතාවය පිටු දැකීම.

අවුරුදු 50 දී පිටු දැකීම අත් හැරීම අබූතාලිබ් සහ කදීජා මව්තුමිය අභාප්‍රාප්ත වීම.

අවුරුදු 51 දී එතුමාගේ “තායිෆ්”ගමන සහ අකබා පළමුවන පොරන්දුව.

එතුමගේ 52 වියේදී “මිරාජ් ගමන” පන්චකාල සලාතය යුතුකමක් වීම අකබා  දෙවන පොරන්දුව .

අවුරුදු 53 දී නබි තුමාණන් ඝාතනය කිරීමට කුමණ්ත්‍රණය කිරීම සහ “හිජ් රත්” මදීනා ගමන නබි (සල්) තුමාණනගේ පළමුවන ජුම්මා සලාතය සහ එතුමා “අල් මස්ජිදුන් නබවි ඉදි කිරීම.

අවුරුදු 54 දී අස්සව්ම් නියම වීම ද නබි තුමාගේ ප්‍රධානත්වයෙන් ඉස්ලාම් රාජය්යක් ගොඩනැගීමද යුදෙව්වරුන් සමග ගිවිසුම සහ බද් ර් සටන ඇති වීම

අවුරුදු 55 දී එතුමා උහද් සටනට සහභාගී වීම

අවුරුදු 57 දී එතුමා අගල් සටනට සහභාගී වීම

අවුරුදු 58 දී එතුමා හුදයබිය්යා ගිවිසුම ඇතිකරගැනීම        

අවුරුදු 59 දී එතුමා කයිබර් සටනට සහභාගී වීම සහ ඉස්ලාමයට හසුන්පත් හා දුතයන් යැවීම

අවුරුදු 61 දී එතුමා මක්කා ජය ගැනීම

අවුරුදු 63 දී අවසාන හජ් අරෆා දේශනය එතුමා ඉටු කිරීම

අවුරුදු 63 දී අප නායක මුහම්මද් (නබී (සල්) තුමා අවසාන ගමන යෑමට සූදානම් වීම එනම් වෆාත් වීම

“ඉන්නා ලිල්ලාහි වඉන්නා ඉලයිහි රාජිඌන්”

මරණින් පසු කුසල්

    නබි තුමාගෙන් දිනක් තම සහාබාවරු (මිත්‍රවරු නබිතුමණි මිනිසා මරණියට පත් වූ පසුත් ඔහුට කුසල් ලෑබෙමින් තිබෙන ක්‍රියවන් කවරේද යන්න ඇසූහ එයට නබි (සල්) තුමා

1 තමන් ඉගෙනගත් දෑයින් අනික් අයට ඉගෑන්වීම

 2 තමන්ගේ දරුවන් යහපත් හෑසිරම ඇති දෑඩි කිරීම

3 අල් කුර් ආනය අනිත් අයට පාරායනා කර පෙන්වීම

4 මගීන්ගේ පහසුව පිණිස නවතැන් පහසුකම් ඇති කිරීම

5 දෙවියන්ගේ නමින් දේවස්ථාන ඉදිකිරීම
6 මහජනයාගේ පහසුකම් ඈති කිරීම
7 තමන් උපයාගත් දේපලවලින් අනෙකුත් අයට උපකාර කිරීම

  යන සියල්ල විනාශ නොවන දානයන් වේ ඒවා ඉස්ථිරව තිබෙන තුරු එහී කුසල් එය කළ පුද්ගලයාට මරණයට පත් වූ පසුත් ලෑබෙමීන් පවතී යන්න පිළිතුරු දුන්නේය 

මොළේ පිළිකා හදන මොබයිල්

මොළේ පිළිකා හදන මොබයිල් අද අමාජයේ බෝවන රෝගයක් බදු වූ මොබයිල් එක නැතුවම බැරි උපකරණයක් වී තිබේ.ලොකු පොඩි,බාල මහලු කොයි කාටත් නැතුවම බැරි උපකරණය මේ මොබයිල් එකයි. අද ළැව් ගින්නක්‌ සේ ළමා තරුණ මහලූ සියලූ දෙනා වෙළාගෙන සීඝ්‍රව පැතිර යන ජංගම දුරකථනය අලූත්ම මෝස්‌තරයක්‌ විලාසිතාවක් බවට පත්ව තිබෙනු බස්‌වල, දුම්රියේ පාර තොටේ, ගමේ ගොඩේ, සිදාදියේ සැරිසරද්දි ඔබට සක්‌සුදක්‌සේ පැහැදිලිව දැක ගත හැකිය. අද ජංගම දුරකථන මිලියන 16 ක්‌ භාවිතයේ තිබේ.”මොබයිල්” පාවිච්චිය හිතකර මෙන්ම අහිතකර බලපෑම් ඇතිකරවන බව මේ සම්බන්ධයෙන් පර්යේෂණ මෙහෙය වූ ජාත්‍යන්තර විද්‍යාඥයන්ගේ වාර්තා පෙන්නුම් කරයි.ස්‌ත්‍රීන්ගේ වත කමල හා සිරුර ප්‍රසන්න කරවන්නා වූ වේගයෙන් ප්‍රචලිත වන රූපලාවණ්‍ය කර්මාන්තය හැරුණු විට , ප්‍රවර්ධන වෙමින් පවත්නා ජංගම දුරකථන භාවිතයේ හොඳ නරක ගැන කෙටියෙන් විමසා බලමු. මෙය තරුණියන්ගේ පමණක්‌ නොව කාන්තාවන්ගේ ද අලුත් ම ජනප්‍රිය මෝස්‌තරයක්‌ වී තිබේ.මෙමගින් ඇති යහපතට වඩා සමාජය අයහපතේ ප්‍රතිපල බුක්තිවිදින බව සැගවිය නොහැකි සැබෑවකි.අද නව සොයා ගැනීම් අනූව තහවුරු වන්නේ බොහෝ සෞකය ගැටලු වලට මෙය බලපා ඇති බවයි. එයට මුල්ම උදාහරණය නම් ගර්භනියන් නිරතුරුව මොබයිල් කතාවල යෙදෙන විට එහි ආදීනව වශයෙන් කුස තුළ වැඩෙන දරුවා ඉපදීමෙන් පසු අස්‌වාභාවික ගති පැවතුම්වලට ලක්‌වන බව විද්‍යාඥයෝ පවසති.එය අද සිදු වෙමින් පවතින දෙයකි.අද සිදු වන උපත් වලින් අස්වාභාවික දරු උපත්ද සැලකිය යුතු අගයක් ගනියි. කැලිෆොර්නියා විශ්වවිද්‍යාලයේ විද්‍යාඥයන් කණ්‌ඩායමක්‌ දරුවන් 3000 කට අධික පිරිසක්‌ මෙම අධ්‍යයනය සඳහා යොදා ගත්හ.එක්‌සත් ජාතීන්ගේ ලෝක සෞඛ්‍ය සංවිධානයෙන් පත්කරන ලද විශේෂ කමිටුවක්‌ රටවල් 13 ක මොබයිල් දුරකථන භාවිතය ගැන කළ අධ්‍යයනයකින් පසු නිකුත් කළ වාර්තාවක දිනකට පැය 4 කට වඩා ඇමතුම් ගන්නා අයගෙන් සියයට 40 කට මොළේ පිළිකාව සැදීමේ අවදානමක්‌ ඇති බව දැක්‌වේ. ලොව පුරා ජංගම දුරකථන පාවිච්චි කරන බිලියන 4 ක්‌ වූ ජනයා පිළිකාව වැළඳීමෙන් බේරීම සඳහා දුරකථනය තම හිසෙන් හා සිරුරෙන් ඈත් කොට අල්ලාගත යුතු බවත් පාලකයන් විසින් මෙසේ දුරකථන පාවිච්චිය සෞඛ්‍යයට සිදුවිය හැකි හානිය ගැන දැනුවත් කළ යුතු බවත් නිර්දේශ කර තිබේ. ඕස්‌ටේ්‍රලියාවේ වියනා විශ්වවිද්‍යාලයේ පාරිසරික හා සෞඛ්‍ය සේවා ආයතනය මෙහෙය වූ පර්යේෂණවලදී වසර 4 කට වඩා එකදිගට ජංගම දුරකථන පාවිච්චි කරන්නන්ට “TINNITUS” නැමති ආබාධය වැළඳෙන බව සොයාගෙන ඇත. මෙම ආබාධයේ අරුත හා ලක්‌ෂණ වනුයේ කන් ඇතුළෙන් නිතර ෆොන් එකෙන් නිකුත්වන RINGING හෝ “ගුමු – ගුමු” හඬක්‌ ඇසීමය. මෙම පර්යේෂණ මෙහෙය වූ කණ්‌ඩායමේ ප්‍රධානි ආචාර්ය හැන්ස්‌ පීටර් “ටිනිටස්‌” ආබාධය සහිත 100 දෙනෙකු සමඟ සාමාන්‍ය 100 දෙනෙකු සංසන්දනය කර දීර්ඝ අධ්‍යයනයක්‌ කළේය. බ්‍රිතාන්‍යයේ පමණක්‌ ටිනිටස්‌ රෝගීන් මිලියන 5 ක්‌ සිටිති.අද සමාජයේ එක් එක් පුද්ගලයා ගන්නා වැටුපෙන් 10% ක පමණ ප්‍රමාණයක් මොබයිල් බිල්පත් සදහා වැය කරයි.මොබයිල් එක අවශ්‍යය දේට පමණක් යොදා ඇති වන සමාජ හා සෞකය කාලීන ගැටලු රැසකට විසදුම වනු ඇත.

ලංකාවට යළිත් වර්ෂාවෙන් පීඩා

        

ලංකාවට යළිත් වර්ෂාවෙන් පීඩා ලංකාවේ වර්ෂාව නිසා පීඩා තවත් වැඩි වී ඇති බව ඉකුත් 22 යලිත් වාර්තා වේ.ජනවාරි 22 දා ආරම්භ වූ වර්ෂාව මේ මස 2 වන දා වන විටත් එන්න වැඩි වීම මිස අඩු වීමක් නම් දක්නට නොලැබේ.ජනවාරි මාසය පුරා ඇද හැලුනු වර්ෂාවට වඩා මෙම වර්ෂාව නිසා සිදු වු විනාශය සුළු පටු එකක් නම් නොවේ.මෙම නොනවතින ධාරානිපාතික වර්ෂාව නිසා බරපතල හානි සිදු වූ බවට වාර්තා වේ. මෙම හානිය සිදු වූ මූලික ප්‍රදේශ නම්, මඩකලපුව,අම්පාර,ත්‍රිකුණාමලය,පොලොන්නරුව,අනුරාධපුරය,වව්නියාව,බදුල්ල,නුවරඑලිය හා මාතලේ යන දිස්ත්‍රික්ක වල ඇද හැලෙන නා කපන වැස්ස නිසා මෙවන විට ගණන් බලා ඇති අයුරින් ලක්ෂ දෙකහමාරකට අධික පිරිසක් මුලුමනින්ම පීඩාවට පත්ව සිටිති. මෙය ඇත්තෙන්ම ජනතාවට ගැලවුමක් නැති තත්ත්වයකි.ලොකු කුඩා කවුරුත් මෙම වර්ෂාව නිසා විදවන අයුරු ඉතා සෝචනීය ඉරණමයි.ගත වූ ජනවාරි මාසයේ පැවැති වර්ෂාවට වඩා තදබල ලෙසින් පැවැති වර්ෂාව නිසා පොලොන්නරුව දිස්ත්‍රික්කය ජලයෙන් යට වී කොටස් 3 කට වෙන්වී ඇති බව දිස්ත්‍රික් ලේකම් මහතා ප්‍රකාශ කලේය.වර්ෂාවෙන් මෙලෙස පීඩා විදින ජනතාව වෙනුවෙන් අවශ්‍යය ආහාර පාන ලබා දීම සදහා සියලු කටයුතු සම්පාදනය කර ඇති අතර වියලි ආහාර බෙදා හැරීමේ වැඩසටහන්ද ලංකාව පුරා ක්‍රියාත්මක වෙමින් පවතියී.මෙම ප්‍රදේශ වර්ෂාව හේතුවෙන් මුහුණ දෙන තවත් තර්ජනාත්මක තත්ත්වය නම් වැව් පිටාර යෑමයි.කන්ඩලම,සේනානායක සමුද්‍රය,නුවර වැව,හා පරාක්‍රම සමුද්‍රය යන වැව් වල වාන් දොරටු විවෘත කර ඇත.ිමෙය තවත් විපතක සලකුණුයි.තවද වැව් වලට සැලකය යුතු මට්ටමේ හානි සිදු වී තිබේ. අනෙක් ප්‍රදේශ වලද ගියවර වර්ෂාවෙන් හානියට පත් ඇළදොල ගංගා ප්‍රතිසංස්කරණය කටයුතු ආරම්භ කිරීමට පෙරම යලි අධික වර්ෂව ඇද හැලීම නිසා පිටාර ගලන ගංගා ජලයෙන් ප්‍රදේශ ගණනාවක්ම ප්‍රබලවම හානි සිදු විය. තවද විපතට පත් ජනතාව බේරා ගැනීම හා ආහාරපාන බෙදා හැරීම කටයුතු වල ත්‍රිවිද හමුදාවද යෙදී සිටිනවා. මීට අමතරව වැව් වලට සිදු වූ හානිය නිසා අමාත්‍යංශ ගණනාවක ඉංජිනේරුවරුන් එකට එක් වී වැව් බැමි ආරක්ෂා කර ගැනීමට අවශ්‍යය පියවර ගනිමින් පවතියි. මෙහී දී ගං වතුර නිසා සිද්ධස්ථාන රැසකටද හානි සිදු වී ඇත.සෝමාවතී පුද බිම අඩි 4 ක්ම ගං වතුරෙන් යට විය.එහි වසන හිමිවරුද ගං වතුරට කොටු වූහ.මැදිරිගිරිය නගරය අඩි 5 ක් ද,දඹුල්ල නගරය අඩි 6 ක්ද ගං වතුරින් යට විය. එම ප්‍රදේශ වල ගොවි ජනතාවගේ ගොවිපලවල් සම්පූර්ණයෙන්ම හානි විය. එය කුඹුරු අක්කර 3000 ක් වූ අතර ගොවියන් සතු වූ කුකුලන්,ඌරන්,මී ගවයින්, හා එළ ගවයින් ඇතුලු කෘෂිකර්මයට අදාල සතුන් 10,000 කට ආසන්න ගණනක් මිය ගොස්ය.පොලොන්නරුවටත් සැලකිය යුතු මට්ටමේ හානියක් මෙවරද සිදු විය.පොලොන්න්රුවේ පමණක් පවුල් 3672 ක අනාථ වූ අතර ජනතාව කදවුරු 21 ක අවතැන් වී සිටීයි. අම්පාරේ පවුල් 11,343 ක් දෙවන වර ගං වතුරින්ද පීඩා විදීයි. සියලුම දිස්ත්‍රික්ක වල වැව් වාන් දැමීමට බලාපොරොත්තු වන අතර මනම්පිටියේ මහා මාර්ගයේ පමණක් අඩි 8 ක් පමණ උස් වූ ජල කදක් පැවති බවට වාර්තා වේ. ස්වභාවධර්මයේ විපර්්‍යාස හමුවේ ඔබටත් මටත් කල හැකි දෙයක් නැත.

The Four Great Imaams

Imam ash-Shafi’i

In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful

The Life of Imam Shafi’i (Rahimahullah) (d. 204 A.H./ 820 C.E.)

Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Idris ash-Shafi’i was a descended from the Hashimi family of the Quaraish tribe to which the Holy Prophet (SAW) belonged.

He was born in Gaza, Palestine, and was raised in Makkah, his parents’ home town. He memorized the holy Qur’an while he was still a young child. When he reached fifteen, his knowledge was so thorough, Muslim Ibn Khalid Al-Zinji, the Mufti of Makkah, told him: “O Abu Abdullah, give fatawa (religious rulings), for by Allah it is time for you to do so!”

Al-Shafi’i traveled extensively for the sake of spreading knowledge. He went to Madinah, met Imam Malik, memorized many ahadith, and learned the Muwatta of Imam Maliki. He also visited Iraq twice. By the second time he arrived there, he was so famous for his knowledge, that many Iraqi scholars followed him and rejected the innovations and deviations they espoused before. He then left for Egypt where he stayed until he died in 204 Hijri. There he taught the jurisprudence of the Qur’an and Sunnah. He also taught linguistics, poetry and genealogy, and debated people who were fanatically following their madhahib (schools of thought). Most of them were of the Maliki school of thought. They saw in him a wise and pious man so acquainted with their madhahib but without any fanaticism. Through him, they were able to see their flaws, and learned to seek the truth wherever it was.

But what earned Al-Shafi’i the title of the revivalist of the second century was that he was the one who put the fundamentals of jurisprudence (usul Al-Fiqh). Scholars before him used to gather the ahadith they heard in their countries, and when a hadith seemed in contradiction with another, they used their personal judgment to decide which one is the most acceptable.

Then at the time of Al-Shafi’i, the Prophet’s ahadith were gathered from different countries, and the disagreements among the scholars increased until Al-Shafi’i wrote his famous book, Al-Risalah, which is considered the foundation of Islamic jurisprudence. In it, Al-Shafi’i relied on the literal meaning of the Qur’an, then on the authentic Sunnah. He strongly argued for the acceptance ahadith provided they were authentic. He considered following and applying the Sunnah as equally important as following the Qur’an. He supported the use of consensus and discouraged the use of one’s personal judgment without relying on the Qur’an, the Sunnah, the consensus or the juristic reasoning by analogy (Qiyas). One of the things that distinguished Al-Shafi’i from other scholars was that he himself wrote the fundamentals of his school of thought, as well as other books that are considered the body of his jurisprudence.

Al-Shafi’i revival movement had many achievements:
He brought people back to follow the Sunnah after a lot of confusion had spread among them.

He was committed to relying on evidence, and rejecting blind imitation. He said: “If a hadith is proved authentic, then it becomes my belief.” He also said: “If you see that my words contradict the hadith, then apply the hadith and disregard my words.”

When he saw the opinions of some scholars before him were not based on the Qur’an or the Sunnah, and had no foundations, he worked toward putting the fundamentals of jurisprudence, and wrote down his famous book, Al-Rissalah.

He was the first to distinguish and separate between the application of discretion in legal matters (Istihsan), and the juristic reasoning by analogy (Qiyas).

He did not confine himself to the knowledge of hadith or fiqh, but he was also well versed in Arabic linguistics, poetry, and genealogy. Al-Karabissi, a famous scholar of the time of Al-Shafi’i said: “I have seen nothing nobler than Al-Shafi’i’s study sessions. People of hadith used to attend them as well as people of jurisprudence and poetry. Most of the well-known scholars in poetry and linguistics used to visit him, and they would listen to his discourse on all these disciplines.”

Baghdad in Iraq and Cairo in Egypt were the chief centres of Imam Shafiee’s activities. It is from these two cities that teachings of the Shafi-ee school spread . During the time of Sultan Salahuddeen (Saladin), the Shafi-ee Madhhab was the most prominent in Egypt, and to this day the Imam of the Al-Azhar Masjid is always a Shafi-ee and the Shafi-ee Madhhab is industriously studied along with that of the other three schools of the Sunnis.

During his life Imam Shafi-ee also suffered from political intrigues. For instance, after studying under Imam Malik in Medina he was sent to fill an office in Yemen, where he was accused of political involvement which resulted in his arrest.

He was taken as prisoner to Haroun al-Rasheed. The Khalifah however found him innocent and the Imam was honourably released.
Imam Shafiee died in the Year 204 A.H./ 820 C.E. and was laid to rest in Egypt

Major Works:
Kitab al-Risalam Fi-Usul al-Fiqh commonly known as Al-Risala
Kitab al-Umm

One of his Sayings:

Imam Ghazali in his Ihya quotes Imam Shaf’ee as saying:

“I used not to take food with satisfaction for the last 16 years, as a full stomach makes the body heavy, makes the heart hard, increases sleep and renders a man lazy for Worship”

Imam Abu Hanifah

Imam Abu Hanifah was born in Kufa, Iraq in the year 80A.H. He was the son of a Persian merchant and his full name is Nu’man bin Thabit ibn Zauti (more famously known in Islamic History as ‘Imam Abu Hanifah’ and ‘Imam A’zam’).

His father – Thabit – was privileged to meet Hazrat Ali (R.A.) who had at the time, made Kufa his capital. Kufa, at the time of Imam Abu Hanifah was one the most important learning centres in the Islamic world and was blessed with the presence of over a thousand sahabah at one stage in its history.

Imam Abu Hanifah is himself also a Tabi’ee (One who saw and benefited from at least one Sahabi).

At the age of 20, Imam Abu Hanifah turned his attention towards the pursuit of advancing his Islamic knowledge.

Imam Abu Hanifah’s Teachers

Imam Abu Hanifah benefited from nearly 4,000 Sheikhs. Among his 1st and the most important tutors was Imam Hammad (Died 120 A.H.) whose educational lineage is linked with Hadhrat Abdullah Ibn Mas’ood (R.A.). Such was his respect for his tutor, Imam Hammad that Imam Abu Hanifah says; whilst in my home I never even stretched my legs towards the house of my tutor, despite living 7 streets away.

Imam Abu Hanifah (R.A.) had joined his father’s business wherein he showed scrupulous honesty and fairness. Once his agent had sold a consignment of silk cloth on his behalf but forgot to mention a slight defect to the customers. When Imam Abu Hanifah learnt of this, he was greatly distressed because he had no means of the refunding the customers; so he immediately ordered the entire proceeds of the sale (30,000 Dirhams ) to be given in charity.

Imam Abu Hanifah was also keenly interested in education. He established a school at Kufa, which later became a famous College of Theology. Here he delivered lectures on Islamic Law and related subjects.

Fiqah or Islamic Law was systematically studied by his students under his expert guidance. A large number of his devoted and highly intelligent students worked under him for 30 years, and it is the labour of these students that gave us the Hanafi School of thought.

Imam Abu Hanifah (R.A.) was the 1st of the Imams to advocate the use of “reason” in the consideration of religious questions based on the Qur’an and Sunnah. He was also the 1st Imam to arrange all the subjects of Islamic Law systematically.

His most important work is the Kitab-ul-Aasaar which was compiled by his students – Imam Abu Yusuf and Imam Muhammad.

In {164 A.H.} 763 A.C. Al-Mansoor – the Banu Abbas Khalifa of the Muslim Empire at Baghdad whose capital was Baghdad – offered Imam Sahib the post of Chief Qadhi of the state, but Imam Abu Hanifah declined to accept the post and chose to remain independent. In his reply to Al-Mansoor, Imam Abu Hanifah excused himself by saying that he did not regard himself fit for the post offered. Al-Mansoor, who had his own ideas and reasons for offering the post, lost his temper and accused Imam Abu Hanifah of lying.

“If I am lying,” the Imam said, “then my statement is doubly correct. “How can you appoint a liar to the exalted post of a Chief Qazi?”

Incensed by this reply, Al-Mansoor charged the Imam with contempt, had him arrested and locked in prison.

Even in prison, Imam Abu Hanifah continued to teach those who were permitted to come to him.

It was here in prison that Imam Abu Hanifah was administered a dose of poison in 150 A.H. Realizing that the end was near, the Imam prostrated in prayer and passed away in this condition in the month of Rajab, 150 A.H.

The news of his death soon spread throughout Baghdad. The whole town came out to pay their last homage to the greatest Imam of Islamic Law. More than 50,000 people participated in the first Janaza Salaat. People continued to flock and before the Janaza could be finally taken for burial, the Salaatul Janaza was offered 6 times in all. For days, people came in large numbers to pay their respects at the grave side.

Imam Malik

Abu Abdullah, Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amer al-Asbahee was born in Madinah in the year 93 A.H. (714 CE). His ancestral home was in Yemen, but his grandfather settled in Madinah after embracing Islam.

Born into a well-to-do family, Imam Malik did not need to work for a living. He was highly attracted to the study of Islam, and ended up devoting his entire life to the study of Fiqh. Imam Malik received his education in what was the most important seat of Islamic learning, Madinah, and lived where the immediate descendants and the followers of the companions of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, were living.

It is said that Imam Malik sought out over three hundred Tabi’een or those who saw and followed the companions of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam. Imam Malik held the hadeeth of the Prophet, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, in such reverence that he never narrated, taught any hadeeth or gave a fatwa without being in a state of ritual purity, Ghusl. Ismael ibn abi Uwaiss said, “I asked my uncle Imam Malik – about something. He had me sit, made ablution, then said, ‘Laa hawla wala quwata illa billah.’ He did not give any fatwa without saying it first.”

Also, Imam Malik saw fatwa as a sensitive, precise, and important action that can have far reaching results, and used to be extremely careful about giving it to the extent that if he was not sure about a matter, he would not dare to talk. Al-Haytham said, “I once was with Imam Malik when he was asked more than forty questions and I heard him reply, ‘I do not know,’ to thirty two of them.”

Yet, he was the man about whom ash-Shafi’ee said, ‘When scholars are mentioned, Malik is like the star among them.’ Malik said that he did not sit to give fatwa, before seventy of the Madinah scholars first witnessed to his competence in doing so.

Imam Malik became the Imam of the Madinah, and one of the most renowned Imams of Islam.

Imam Malik’s Famous Muwatta

He is the author of al-Muwatta’ (“The Approved”), formed of the sound narrations from the Prophet together with the sayings of his companions, their followers, and those after them. Malik said, “I showed my book to seventy scholars of Madinah, and every single one of them approved it for me (kulluhum wata-ani alayh), so I named it ‘The Approved’.”

Imam Bukhari said that the soundest of all chains of transmission was “Malik, from Nafi, from Ibn Umar.” The scholars of hadeeth call it the Golden Chain, and there are eighty narrations with this chain in the Muwatta. Malik composed al-Muwatta in the course of forty years, having started with ten thousand narrations until he reduced them to their present number of fewer than 2,000.

Like all scholars of Islam, Imam Malik was famous for his piety and integrity. He courageously stood up, and was prepared to suffer, for his convictions. When the governor of Madinah demanded and forced people to take the oath of allegiance to Khalifah al-Mansour, Imam Malik issued a fatwa that such an oath was not binding because it was given under coercion. He based this opinion of the hadeeth, “The divorce of the coerced does not take effect” (laysa ala mustakrahin talag). This resulted in many people finding courage to express their opposition, but Imam Malik was arrested, found guilty of defiance, and publicly flogged.

Imam Malik’s followers and disciples developed a Fiqh school, Madh-hab, based on his Ijtihad which came to be known as the Maliki Madh-hab. This Madh-hab spread in North Africa, al-Andalus, much of Egypt, and some of al-Sham, Yemen, Sudan, Iraq, and Khurasan. Today, Malikis are mostly found in North and West Africa, Egypt, Sudan and the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula.

On Monday 14th of Rabi-ul-Awwal 179 A H., Imaam Malik (R.A) took leave from this world in the city of Madinah and is buried in the famous al-Baqie cemetery

தற்பெருமை

 அண்ணல் நபி (ஸல்) அவர்கள் அருளினார்கள்: “எவனுடைய உள்ளத்தில் அணுவளவு தற்பெருமை இருக்குமோ, அவன் சுவனத்தில் நுழைய முடியாது.” இதனைச் செவியுற்ற ஒரு மனிதர் கேட்டார்: “மனிதன் தன் ஆடைகளும் காலணியும் நன்றாக இருக்கவேண்டும் என்று விரும்புகின்றானே? (இதுவும் தற்பெருமையா? இத்தகைய அழகுணர்ச்சி கொண்ட மனிதன் சுவனப்பேற்றை அடைய முடியாதா?” அண்ணலார் (ஸல்) அவர்கள் நவின்றார்கள்: “(இல்லை, இது தற்பெருமையில்லை) அல்லாஹ் தூய்மையானவன், தூய்மையையே விரும்புகின்றான். தற்பெருமையின் பொருள், அல்லாஹ்விற்கு நாம் அடிபணிந்து வாழவேண்டிய கடமையை நிறைவேற்றாமலிருப்பதும், பிற மக்களை இழிவாகக் கருதுவதும் ஆகும்.” அறிவிப்பாளர்: இப்னு மஸ்ஊத் (முஸ்லிம்) அண்ணல் நபி (ஸல்) அவர்கள் நவின்றார்கள்: “பெருமையடிப்பவன் சுவனத்தில் நுழையமாட்டான். பொய்ப் பெருமை பேசித் திரிபவனும் சுவனத்தில் நுழையமாட்டான். ” அறிவிப்பாளர் : ஹாரிஸ் பின் வஹ்ப் (ரலி) (அபூதாவூத்) நான் அண்ணல் நபி (ஸல்) அவர்கள் கூறக் கேட்டேன்: “இறை நம்பிக்கையாளனின் வேட்டி (கீழங்கி, கால்சட்டை) அவனது கெண்டைக்காலில் பாதிவரை இருக்கும். அதனைவிடக் கீழேயும் கணுக்கால்களுக்கு மேலேயும் இருந்தால் அதனால் பாவம் ஏதுமில்லை. இன்னும் அதனைவிடக் கீழே இருப்பது நரகத்திற்குரியதாகும். (அதாவது அது பாவகரமான ஒரு செயல்) இதனை (இந்தக் கடைசி வாக்கியத்தை மக்களுக்கு இதன் முக்கியத்துவமும் தெளிவாகிவிடட்டும் என்பதற்காக) அண்ணலார் மூன்று முறை கூறினார்கள். பிறகு “அகந்தையுணர்வினால் தன் கீழங்கியைப் பூமியில் இழுத்தவண்ணம் நடக்கும் மனிதனை இறைவன் மறுமை நாளில் ஏறிட்டும் பார்க்கமாட்டான் ”என்று அண்ணலார் கூறினார்கள். அறிவிப்பாளர் : அபூஸயீத் அல்குத்ரி (ரலி) (அபூதாவூத்) அண்ணல் நபி (ஸல்) அவர்கள் அருளினார்கள்: “எவன் தன் கால்சட்டையை கர்வத்துடன் பூமியில் இழுத்துச் செல்கின்றானோ அவனை அல்லாஹ் மறுமை நாளில் ஏறெடுத்தும் பார்க்கமாட்டான். ( கருணைப் பார்வை பார்க்கமாட்டான் )” அறிவிப்பாளர்: இப்னு உமர் “நான் பிடித்து வைத்த வண்ணம் இருக்காவிட்டால் என் வேட்டி தளர்ந்து கணுக்கால்களுக்குக் கீழே போய்விடுகின்றது. (நானும் என் இறைவனின் கருணைப் பார்வையை இழந்து விடுவேனா? ” அதற்கு அண்ணலார், “இல்லை, நீர் கர்வத்தால் வேட்டியை இழுத்துச் செல்பவரல்லர். என்று பதிலளித்தார்கள். அபூபக்கர் ஸித்தீக் (ரலி) அவர்கள் வினவினார்கள் (புகாரி) அண்ணல் நபி (ஸல்) அவர்கள் கூறுகின்றார்கள்: “நீங்கள் விரும்புவதை உண்ணுங்கள், விரும்புவதை அணியுங்கள். ஆனால், ஒரு நிபந்தனை. உங்களிடம் கர்வமும், வீண்விரயமும் இருக்கக்கூடாது.” அறிவிப்பாளர் : இப்னு அப்பாஸ் (புகாரி)

Kaaba-House of Allah !

 

The small, cubed building known as the Kaaba may not rival skyscrapers in height or mansions in width, but its impact on history and human beings is unmatched.

The Kaaba is the building towards which Muslims face five times a day, everyday, in prayer. This has been the case since the time of Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him) over 1400 years ago.

The Size of the Kaaba:

The current height of the Kaaba is 39 feet, 6 inches and total size comes to 627 square feet.

The inside room of the Kaba is 13X9 meters. The Kaba’s walls are one meter wide. The floor inside is 2.2 meters higher than the place where people perform Tawaf.

The ceiling and roof are two levels made out of wood. They were reconstructed with teak which is capped with stainless steel.

The walls are all made of stone. The stones inside are unpolished, while the ones outside are polished.

This small building has been constructed and reconstructed by Prophets Adam, Ibrahim, Ismail and Muhammad (peace be upon them all). No other building has had this honor.

Yet, not very much is known about the details of this small but significant building.

Did you know the Kaaba was reconstructed as recently as close to four years ago?

Did you know that the Kaaba has been subjected to danger by natural disasters like flooding, as well as human attacks?

If you didn’t keep reading. You’ll find some rarely heard of information discussed below and discover facts about the Kaaba many are unaware of.

The other names of the Kaba

Literally, Kaaba in Arabic means a high place with respect and prestige. The word Kaba may also be derivative of a word meaning a cube.

Some of these other names include:

(i) Bait ul Ateeq-which means, according to one meaning, the earliest and ancient. According to the second meaning, it means independent and liberating. Both meanings could be taken.

(ii) Bait ul Haram-the honorable house.

The Kaba has been reconstructed up to 12 times

Scholars and historians say that the Kaba has been reconstructed between five to 12 times.

The very first construction of the Kaba was done by Prophet Adam (peace be upon him). Allah says in the Quran that this was the first house that was built for humanity to worship Allah.

After this, Prophet Ibrahim and Ismail (peace be upon them) rebuilt the Kaba. The measurements of the Kaba’s Ibrahimic foundation are as follows:

-the eastern wall was 48 feet and 6 inches
-the Hateem side wall was 33 feet
-the side between the black stone and the Yemeni corner was 30 feet
-the Western side was 46.5 feet

Following this, there were several constructions before the Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be uponj him) ’s time.

Reconstruction of Kaaba by Quraish

Prophet Muhammad participated in one of its reconstructions before he became a Prophet.

After a flash flood, the Kaba was damaged and its walls cracked. It needed rebuilding.

This responsibility was divided among the Quraish’s four tribes. Prophet Muhammad helped with this reconstruction.

Once the walls were erected, it was time to place the Black Stone, (the Hajar ul Aswad) on the eastern wall of the Kaba.

Arguments erupted about who would have the honor of putting the Black Stone in its place. A fight was about to break out over the issue, when Abu Umayyah, Makkah’s oldest man, proposed that the first man to enter the gate of the mosque the following morning would decide the matter. That man was the Prophet. The Makkans were ecstatic. “This is the trustworthy one (Al-Ameen),” they shouted in a chorus. “This is Muhammad“.

He came to them and they asked him to decide on the matter. He agreed.

Prophet Muhammad proposed a solution that all agreed to-putting the Black Stone on a cloak, the elders of each of the clans held on to one edge of the cloak and carried the stone to its place. The Prophet then picked up the stone and placed it on the wall of the Kaaba.

Since the tribe of Quraish did not have sufficient funds, this reconstruction did not include the entire foundation of the Kaaba as built by Prophet Ibrahim. This is the first time the Kaba acquired the cubical shape it has now unlike the rectangle shape which it had earlier. The portion of the Kaba left out is called Hateem now.

Construction After the Prophet’s Time-Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr

The Syrian army destroyed the Kaba in Muharram 64 (Hijri date) and before the next Hajj Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr, may Allah be pleased with him, reconstructed the Kaba from the ground up.

Ibn az-Zubayr wanted to make the Kaba how the Prophet Muhammad wanted it, on the foundation of the Prophet Ibrahim.

Ibn az-Zubayr said, “I heard Aisha (may Allah be pleased with her) say, ‘The Prophet said: “If your people had not quite recently abandoned the Ignorance (Unbelief), and if I had sufficient provisions to rebuild it [the Kaaba], I would have added five cubits to it from the Hijr. Also, I would make two doors; one for people to enter therein and the other to exit.” (Bukhari). Ibn az-Zubayr said, “Today, I can afford to do it and I do not fear the people.

Ibn az-Zubayr built the Kaaba on Prophet Ibrahim’s foundation. He put the roof on three pillars with the wood of Aoud (a perfumed wood with aroma which is traditionally burned to get a good smell out of it in Arabia).

In his construction he put two doors, one facing the east the other facing the west, as the Prophet wanted but did not do in his lifetime.

He rebuilt the Kaba on the Prophet Ibrahim’s foundation, which meant that the Hateem area was included. The Hateem is the area adjacent to the Kaba enclosed by a low semi-circular wall.

Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr also made the following additions and modifications:
-put a small window close to the roof of the Kaba to allow for light.
-moved the door of the Kaba to ground level and added a second door to the Kaba.
-added nine cubits to the height of the Kaba, making it twenty cubits high.
-its walls were two cubits wide..
-reduced the pillars inside the House to three instead of six as were earlier built by Quraish.

For reconstruction, ibn az-Zubayr put up four pillars around Kaba and hung cloth over them until the building was completed. People began to do Tawaf around these pillars at all times, so Tawaf of the Kaba was never abandoned, even during reconstruction.

During Abdul Malik bin Marwan’s time

In 74 Hijri (or 693 according to the Gregorian calendar), Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf al-Thaqafi, the known tyrant of that time, with the approval of Umayyad Khalifa Abdul Malik bin Marwan, demolished what Ibn az-Zubayr had added to it from the older foundation of Prophet Ibrahim, restore its old structure as the Quraish had had it.

Some of the changes he made were the following:

  • he rebuilt it in the smaller shape which is found today
  • took out the Hateem
  • walled up the western door (whose signs are still visible today) and left the rest as it was
  • pulled down the wall in the Hateem area.
  • removed the wooden ladder Ibn az-Zubayr had put inside the Kaba.
  • reduced the door’s height by five cubits

When Abdul Malik bin Marwan came for Umra and heard the Hadith that it was wish of Prophet for the Kaba to be constructed the way Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr had built it, he regretted his actions.

Imam Malik’s advice to the Khalifa Harun al Rasheed

Abbasi Khalifa Harun al Rasheed wanted to rebuild the Kaba the way the Prophet Muhammad wanted and the way Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr built it.

But when he consulted Imam Malik, the Imam asked the Khalifa to change his mind because constant demolition and rebuilding is not respectful and would become a toy in the hands of kings. Each one would want to demolish and rebuild the Kaba.

Based on this advice, Harun al Rasheed did not reconstruct the Kaba. The structure remained in the same construction for 966 years, with minor repairs here and there.

Reconstruction during Sultan Murad Khan’s time

In the year 1039 Hijri, because of heavy rain, flood and hail, two of the Kaba’s walls fell down.

The flood during which this occurred took place on the 19th of Shaban 1039 Hijri which continued constantly, so the water in the Kaba became almost close to half of its walls, about 10 feet from the ground level.

On Thursday the 20th of Shaban 1039 Hijri, the eastern and western walls fell down.

When flood receded on Friday the 21st of Shaban, the cleanup started.

Again, a curtain, the way Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr established on 4 pillars, was put up, and the reconstruction started on the 26th of Ramadan. The rest of the walls except for the one near the Black Stone, were demolished.

By the 2nd of Zul-Hijjah 1040 the construction was taking place under the guidance of Sultan Murad Khan, the Ottoman Khalifa. From the point of the Black stone and below, the current construction is the same as that done by Abdullah ibn az-Zubayr.

The construction which was done under the auspices of Murad Khan was exactly the one done at the time of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan which is the way the Quraysh had built it before Prophethood.

On Rajab 28 1377, One historian counted the total stones of the Kaba and they were 1,614. These stones are of different shapes. But the stones which are inside the outer wall which is visible are not counted in there.

Reconstruction of the Kaaba In 1996

A major reconstruction of the Kaba took place between May 1996 and October 1996.

This was after a period of about 400 years (since Sultan Murad Khan’s time).

During this reconstruction the only original thing left from the Kaba are the stones. All other material has been replaced including the ceiling and the roof and its wood.

Those who received the glad tidings of Paradise

Asharul Mubashshireen

Those who received the glad tidings of Paradise, Teach it to your children and grand children.

1.   Abu Bakr as Siddeeq

2.   Umar bin Khattaab

 3.   Uthman ibn Affaan

4.   Ali ibn Abi Thalib

        5.   Talha bin Ubaydullah

6.   Zubair ibn Al Awwam

7.   Abu Ubaydah Al Jarrah

8.   Abdurrahman ibn Awf

9.   Sa’d ibn Abi Wakkaas

10. Saeed ibn Zayd